Oncomarkers show not only whether a person has cancer or a predisposition to it, but also opens the veil of a successful pregnancy. One such species is the alpha-fetoprotein oncomarker.
This antigen is a protein secreted by the cells of the embryo into the body of the mother. After birth, the production takes place in the liver.
The half-life of alpha-fetoprotein in the body is only 5 days. Therefore, monitoring monitoring takes place over a long period of time.
Initially, the substance is synthesized in the ovaries with a yellow body. Approximately on the fifth week of pregnancy the future kid starts to create it independently. Concentration increases both in the blood of the future baby and his mother.
The highest values reach at 32-34 week of pregnancy. In the first year of life of the baby the amount of this compound in the body is normalized.
Indications for the study
If the woman does not bear a child, the analysis on the cancer marker will help to identi
- of the ovarian tumor,
- primary liver cancer,
- squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus,
- appearance of malignant cells not only in the affected organ, but in others.
Indications for analysis include benign neoplasms, screening for the completeness of tumor removal, to study the effect of treatment on cancer cells.
Each woman during pregnancy should undergo a survey. It allows to reveal the presence of gross deviations in the development of the fetus.
Special attention is paid to girls who have:
- children with developmental and genetic mutations,
- stillborn infants,
- miscarriages or infertility.
What can influence the results?
Many factors influence the results.
- For example, representatives of the Negroid race have higher marks of this protein, and Mongoloid - a lower one.
- Considering the presence of endocrine diseases, for example, diabetes mellitus, will take biotin, viral diseases that were in the recent past.
- Small changes in the values are found in multiple pregnancies.
- If a woman does not wait for a baby's birth, the level will change with hepatitis, kidney failure or hepatitis.
- Too low a level in combination with other indicators that go beyond the norm, indicates a high risk of birth of a baby with Down syndrome. Among the reasons, the placenta is too low.
How to take blood test for AFP oncoprotein?
The results can also be affected by the fact how thoroughly a person prepared for the analysis.
The indicators are influenced by recent physiotherapeutic procedures, ultrasound, massage and instrumental methods of examination. Therefore, it is recommended not to do them on the day of examination.
The results obtained together with laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods are considered to be the most informative.
Monitoring of the received data for different periods of time should be carried out in the same laboratory using the same reagent.
Decoding of the results of
After blood donation, the results are usually ready in two days.
Often, the change in the AFP tumor marker is accompanied with maternal obstetrics. Therefore, for reliability of results in the second trimester, the analysis is combined with the study of placental hormones, ultrasound and other diagnostic methods.
In case of emergency, the results on the AFP can be ready in a couple of hours.
Norm for the alpha-ontoprotein
Marker The normal values for men and non-pregnant women is 0-10 IU / ml.
The rate depends on how the analysis is performed. It can be immunochemical or immunoenzymatic.
Although different biomaterials can be taken for analysis, for example, bile, amniotic or cystic fluid, the standards are standardized only for blood.
Level exceeding the norm
If the indices are more than 10 IU / ml, then additional methods of investigation are appointed for more accurate diagnosis.
It is believed that elevated alpha-fetoprotein indicates the presence of serious diseases, for example, oncology of the breast, liver, pancreas, stomach, embryonic testicular and ovarian tumors.
When pregnancy high values say not only about multiple pregnancies, but also about:
- fetal liver necrosis,
- umbilical hernia,
- pathology of the urinary tract.
Lowered indices indicate a developmental delay, trisomy 18, vesicourous or false pregnancy.
Temporary rise of the
indicator As already noted, a temporary recovery is noted during pregnancy.
At week 15, the indices can be 15-62 IU / ml, but by 20 weeks they can rise to a mark of 119 IU / ml. Changes in indices are detected with exacerbation of cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma after trauma or intoxication.