ECG is considered one of the most common and informative diagnostic techniques. With its help reveal a variety of cardiac pathologies, as well as control the effectiveness of treatment. But what does the ECG of the heart show and how often can it be done? We will talk about its features below.
What is ECG
Electrocardiography is a method for examining the electrophysiological work of the heart muscle. In diagnostics, a special apparatus is used that records the slightest changes in its activity, and after that it is issued in a graphic representation. Conductivity, frequency of contractions, hypertrophic changes, scars and other changes in the functioning of the myocardium can all be detected with the help of an ECG.
In the process of diagnosis, special electrodes detect cardiac contraction, namely the resulting bioelectric potentials. Electrical excitation covers different parts of the heart muscle at different times, therefore, between the unexcited and excited department, the potential di
fference is fixed. It is these data that are captured by the electrodes placed on the body.
In a simple and accessible form about the indicators and features of the ECG will tell the video below:
To whom it is assigned
ECG is used to diagnose a number of cardiac abnormalities. So, the indication for the procedure assignment are:
- Scheduled examination. It is necessary for different categories of people, including adolescents, pregnant women, athletes, before surgical interventions or in the presence of any diseases( lung and gastrointestinal diseases, thyroid gland, diabetes).
- To diagnose secondary or primary diseases as a prophylaxis or to identify possible complications.
- Control during the period of treatment or after its termination for the detection of any disease.
An electrocardiogram is carried out with indications for the use of this diagnostic method. It is also required when passing a medical examination of drivers, draft commission, when referring to a treatment in a sanatorium. Women in the position of the study do at least 2 times: at the time of registration and before childbirth.
Why do it
Diagnostics helps identify early stages of cardiac dysfunction, as well as the prerequisites for the development of serious pathologies. The electrocardiogram is able to detect the slightest changes that occur with the heart: thickening of its walls, changing the normal dimensions inside its cavities, myocardial infarction and its location, the size of ischemia and others. This greatly affects the accuracy of the prognosis and the selection of appropriate treatment, not to mention the importance of timely prevention.
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The opinion of doctors. .. & gt; & gt;
Doctors say that those who celebrate the fortieth anniversary need an annual planned examination, even in the absence of objective symptoms and prerequisites for cardiological problems. This is explained by the increasing risk of complications in the work of the main "motor" of the organism. In other cases, it is enough to visit a doctor for this procedure 1 time for 1-2 years.
Types of diagnostics
Methods and types of cardiac electrocardiography( ECG) are several:
- At rest. The standard method used in most cases. If the diagnosis at this stage does not give accurate data, resort to other types of ECG.
- With load. This type of examination involves the use of physical( veloergometry, treadmill test) or drug loading. This includes the introduction of a sensor through the esophagus for electrical stimulation of the heart. This technique allows you to identify those diseases that do not come to light at rest.
- Daily( Holter) monitoring. A small device is installed in the chest area, which during a day is engaged in fixing cardiac activity. The work of the heart is fixed when performing household activities, which is one of the advantages of the study.
- Transesophageal ECG is performed with low electrocardiography information through the chest wall.
To contact a polyclinic for a survey is:
- complaints of pain in the thoracic region, including the spine;
- aged more than 40 years;
- episodes of varying degrees and intensities of pain in the heart, especially arising from a temperature drop;
- diseases of the chronic respiratory system;
- endocarditis, angina pectoris and a number of other cardiac abnormalities;
- syncope, episodes of increased heart rate, dizziness, malfunctioning of the heart muscle.
Pro indications for ECG procedure will be described by a specialist in the video below:
There are no special contraindications that could cause a failure of ECG.Difficulty in the procedure is observed only in some categories of citizens( high degree of hair, obesity, chest injuries).Data are distorted in persons with a pacemaker installed.
There are a number of contraindications for carrying out stress ECG( electrocardiogram carried out under load):
- exacerbation of current diseases,
- myocardial infarction in acute period,
- severe rhythm disturbances and hypertension,
- acute infections,
- heart failure( severe).
The cardiogram is completely safe, even for pregnant women. No complications, including those related to child development, she never gives.
How to prepare for the ECG of the heart
No special preparation is required before the study.
- You can take food and water without limiting yourself to it.
- But to give up is from power engineers, including coffee.
- It is also better to leave cigarettes and alcohol aside before inspection so as not to distort the data.
On how to do ECG of the heart, we will tell further.
How to pass the
session To conduct an electrocardiogram, it is not necessary to be in a hospital, it's enough to just visit the clinic. In case of emergency hospitalization, a primary examination can be carried out immediately on site, which will allow the ambulance team to effectively help the victim.
- In the diagnosis room, the patient should assume a reclining position on the couch.
- To ensure good conductivity, skin areas on the chest, ankles and hands are wiped with a damp sponge.
- After that, a pair of electrodes in the form of clothespins on the hands and feet, and on the left chest area in the projection of the heart superimposed 6 "suckers."
- After this preparation the device turns on and the electrical activity of the heart muscle begins to be fixed on a special thermo film in the form of a graphical curve. Sometimes the result gets through the device directly to the doctor's computer.
Throughout the study period, which usually lasts no longer than 10 minutes, the patient does not feel any discomfort, everything passes in a calm state and without unpleasant sensations. After this, it remains only to wait for the decryption of the received data. This procedure is also done by the doctor, and then transfers the results to the doctor's office or immediately to the visitor's hands. If pathologies that require immediate treatment are identified, they can be sent to the hospital, if they are not available, the patient goes home.
On how to decipher ECG hearts, read on.
Results and their interpretation
After receiving the results of the study, it is mandatory to decipher the cardiac electrocardiography( ECG) in children and adults. The result of the cardiogram includes several main components:
- ST segments, QRST, TP - this is the distance between the proximal teeth.
- The teeth of the are sharp corners, including those directed downwards. These include the designations R, QS, T, P.
- Interval .It includes the entire segment and the tooth. This PQ, that is, the interval, the period of passage of the pulse from the ventricles to the atria.
The cardiologist analyzes these components, they also help determine the time of contraction and excitation of the myocardium. On the ECG, you can determine the approximate area of the body in the chest, which is possible due to the presence of an electric axis.
The main indicators of the norm of ECG diagnosis, their decoding in adults are expressed in the table. It is worth noting that in some cases they vary slightly. Often such deviations do not indicate the presence of pathology and are also considered the norm.
| Segment and tooth parameters || Standards || |
| Female / male || Children |
| Heart rate || From 60 to 80 beats / min || 110 beats / min( up to 3 years); |
100 beats / min( up to 5 years);
90-100 bpm( up to 8 years);
70-85 beats / min( up to 12 years).
| T || 0.12-0.28 with || - |
| QRS || 0.06 s - 0.1 s || 0.06 - 0.1 s |
| Q || 0.03 with || - |
| PQ || 0.12 s- 0,20 with || 0,2 with |
| P || 0,07 s - 0,11 with || Up to 0,1 with |
| QT || - || Up to 0,4 with |
And now let's talk about the price of electrocardiography( ECG) of the heart.
The average cost of the procedure
The cost of ECG of the heart varies, because it depends on the city of the procedure and the medical center. The average price point is at the level of 500 rubles.
The following video will tell you more about ECG standards: