Methods of examining the breasts are improving all the time. There are new ways of influencing, allowing to diagnose various pathological processes.
When determining cancer pathologies, the main are mammography and ultrasound, but in recent years, girls are often referred for doktografiyu.
The concept of
This is an x-ray method for studying the milk ducts with the introduction of iodine-containing contrast in them. It is carried out to detect changes in this part, the detection of benign and malignant formations.
Doktografiya - the only way to detect intra-flow papillomas, Mints diseases.
Smear analysis is informative, but in combination these two methods allow you to get an accurate result.
Ductography is prescribed if there are neoplasms in the ducts or if they are suspected. Their symptoms are discharge from the nipple, inflammatory processes characterized by soreness.
The method is refined when studying the state of milky currents.
The doktografija has the narrowly directed indications for revealing:
- of intra-flow papillomas,
- of cancer,
Formations become noticeable with this method of investigation, if their size is from 1 mm.
Direct method for carrying out is pathological secretion. As this happens with mastopathy, endocrine problems, inflammations, an additional swab is taken from the nipple, prolactin is determined, blood is taken to the oncoprotein CA 25-3.
A positive point in the study is that the doktografiya works healing. Contrast substance flushes the ducts, which leads to a cessation of discharge from the nipple.
It is not possible to conduct a study in nursing and pregnant women.
A different test method is selected with:
- allergies to the iodine component,
- acute organ inflammation,
- the presence of abnormal cells in the smear,
- malignancies identified by other methods.
Preparation and progress of the
study The method is performed 5-12 days after the onset of the last menstrual period. If a woman has entered the menopause period, there are no time limits.
The procedure takes place in the X-ray room. The woman undresses to the waist, takes off her jewelry. Before the procedure, you can not massage the gland, squeeze out not the contents. It is not necessary to use any actions that could lead to traumatization of the ducts.
Compression makes it possible to distribute evenly over the ducts. The use of a special cannula prevents the entry of air emboli into the ducts. Pictures are taken in an oblique and upper-lower projection.
Explanation of results
The image description is made by a radiologist:
- A duct defect shows the presence of cancer.
- Defect filling indicates the presence of papilloma or cysts.
- The filling unit is characteristic for the narrowing of the ducts. Often is a sign of fibrocystic mastopathy or intraprostatic papilloma.
- Normal - the study did not reveal any pathology.
- Duectectasia determines the presence of an expansion of the milk duct. It can be a sign of oncology.
After decoding, the conclusion is made by a clinician who sent for the study. If the catheter falls into an unchanging duct, the results may be false-negative.
Does it hurt to do a doktografiyu?
Doctors say that the procedure is completely painless, but at the time of insertion of the cannula into the nipple a woman experiences discomfort, which lasts several seconds.
X-ray pictures themselves are also absolutely painless. If necessary, the doctor may use drugs for local anesthesia.
Patients note that the procedure takes about 30 minutes. The nipple is treated with alcohol, novocaine is sometimes used to relax the milk ducts.
Sometimes it is impossible to draw a doktografiya. This is due to the narrowing of the excretory ducts, as well as the proliferation of mucous membranes.
Some women are frightened by the risk of damaging the lactiferous duct when introducing a contrast or catheter. Usually such damages pass independently without interventions. Therefore, there is nothing terrible in this.
Radiation exposure to modern plants does not have a carcinogenic effect, so do not be afraid of it.
The price of breast mammography
The cost of the procedure depends on the skills of the doctor, the equipment used, the more modern the installation, the more you will have to pay.
Write a referral can mammalog, oncologist, surgeon.
Video for the doktografiyu: