There is always a danger of getting infected with parasites. They literally lie in wait for us at every step. Eggs and larvae of helminths can enter the human body with water, dust, through unwashed hands, vegetables and fruits, and some - through the skin when walking without shoes. Therefore, one should always remain wary in this matter and not lose vigilance.
Different types of parasites that can "live" in the human body cause different symptoms that depend on the location of parasites in the body, on their number and on the state of immunity of the infected. But, nevertheless, there are a number of general signs of worms. It is a fever, a rash like an allergic urticaria, swelling of the face, constipation or diarrhea, a decrease in appetite, fatigue, pallor, drowsiness. If such symptoms are manifested, then this is a serious reason for an early referral to a doctor who must prescribe studies to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of helminthiasis.
Indications for helminth examination
Indications for examination for helminthiasis diverse and nonspecific:
- fatigue, irritability, restless sleep, gnashing of teeth in a dream( especially in children);
- itching in the anal passage and perineal region;
- Inflammation of the genital organs in girls and women( vulvovaginitis), frequent urinary tract infections( chronic cystitis);
- stunted growth and weight gain in children, in adults - weight loss;
- various skin rashes of unknown cause;
- digestive disorders by type of diarrhea or constipation;
In case of detection of these symptoms, a general examination( blood test, urinalysis) and specific studies for the detection of helminths, their eggs and larvae are prescribed.
Methods of studying helminthiases can be divided into direct and indirect. Straight - can identify parasites or their particles, eggs, larvae. These tests are primarily feces. Also, the material for research on helminths can be urine, bile, duodenal juice, sputum, blood, scraping from the perianal area. Indirect( indirect) - identify changes in the human body that occur due to infection. These are blood tests, X-ray studies, ultrasound, immunological tests.
In turn, direct methods are divided into macrogelmintoscopic and microhelminthoscopic. Macrogelmintoscopic studies can identify parasites and their parts( joints, scolexes).With their help, you can find such worms as enterobiosis( pinworms), shadyoz( pork thistle), ascarids. Part of the parasites in this study are visible to the naked eye. Microhelminthoscopy - coprocopy - reveals the eggs and larvae of parasites. By the number of helminth eggs in the feces it is possible to judge the degree of parasite infestation.
Study of feces for helminth eggs
The most commonly used in practice and simple is the analysis of feces for helminth eggs, which will help to detect the most common types of worms - ascarids, pinworms and protozoa( amoebae, lamblia).
In everyday clinical practice, coproonoscopy is mainly used. It consists in the preparation of a smear from fresh feces or scrapings from the anal region with further study of its composition under a microscope. The study is cheap, simple, but dangerous in terms of the possibility of infection of laboratory staff. In addition, it is of little informative. Eggs of worms are not always allocated, and for certain periods, depending on the stage of reproduction, they can be unfertilized, modified, and also in different stages of their development. To detect them you need to catch the very moment when the parasites reproduce, and this is not always possible. For example, pinworms( enterobiosis) at night actively lay eggs, creeping out from the anus, and scraping for analysis is done in the afternoon. These factors complicate the correctness of the interpretation of the analysis.
Histological examination of feces for helminth eggs
More accurate and informative is the histological laboratory study of feces for the presence of helminths in it. This analysis has advantages, as it allows to thoroughly study and analyze the faecal sample at different levels, allows using different colors to identify the type of infection. The method is informative, it makes it possible to detect infection by worms along fragments of parasites, eggs and cuticle of larvae. When using this method, there is no risk of contamination of laboratory personnel. In contrast to fresh smears histological preparations can be stored for a long time and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with antihelminthic agents. But this method of research on helminths is inaccessible due to the relative high cost and complexity.
Serological tests for helminthiases
Serological diagnostics of helminths( ELISA, PCR) is gaining popularity. These tests are based on the detection in the blood of antibodies to parasites or their DNA.These methods of research on worms guarantee high reliability, are simple in execution and at the same time they are cheap enough.
General clinical examinations can also help in diagnosis. For example, in helminthic invasion, a decrease in hemoglobin, an increase in the number of eosinophils can be detected in a general blood test. Also, worms and protozoa can be detected by submitting an analysis for dysbiosis.
How to donate feces to eggs of helminths?
Research feces are collected in a dry, clean container. Before the study of feces for eggs of helminths and protozoa, it is necessary to not take stool-free preparations and antibiotics for 2 weeks. For analysis on the simplest material should be fresh, collected no later than 20 minutes before the study. This analysis should be repeated five times at intervals of 2 days.
For analysis on eggs of worms, feces should also be collected in a dry, clean container. Explore it no earlier than a day.