Arthritis is an inflammatory process of the knee joint. The disease proceeds slowly, constantly progressing and is accompanied by pain and discomfort during movement.
This disease can lead to disability, they suffer from people aged 25 to 35 years, after 40 years, arthritis of the knee joint is affected by one in five women, and after 60 years this disease affects every second person.
It is important to know the symptoms of arthritis of the knee joint in order to be able to diagnose this insidious disease in time and begin treatment with medications and folk remedies.
Most often arthritis of the knee arises from the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the joint, where the development of the inflammatory process begins. This reaction is accompanied by redness of the skin on the diseased knee, an increase in its volume and impaired mobility. In most cases, puncture of the knee joint produces purulent contents.
Depending on how the pathological process developed, arthritis can
be primary and secondary.
- Primary - starts for no apparent reason. Symptoms of arthritis in the knee joint appear due to injuries, rheumatoid abnormalities and pus-forming microbes and infections.
- Secondary - appears due to the development of an adjacent disease: psoriasis, rheumatism, immune pathologies, osteoarthrosis.
Primary form implies the following:
- Rheumatoid, the causes of which have not yet been clarified;
- Post-traumatic, whose name indicates the development of inflammation due to the injury;
- Septic, which is an inflammatory disease, provoked by pus-forming microbes;
- Idiopathic, the causes of which are not clear.
Secondary arthritis may be a consequence of other knee joint diseases. For example, reactive arthritis is a complication of infectious diseases of the organs of the genitourinary system or gastrointestinal tract, and rheumatoid is a severe autoimmune pathology, the causes of its development are not fully understood.
The main risk factors for development of the disease are:
- belonging to the female sex;
- age over 45;
- chronic infectious - viral or bacterial - diseases;
- congenital defects of the musculoskeletal system;
- hereditary predisposition.
Regardless of the causes of development in the manifestations of different forms of arthritis, there are common symptoms:
- pain, aggravated by movement;
- swelling and swelling of the affected joint;
- increased temperature and redness of the skin in the area of inflammation;
- reduction in the volume of movements in the joint.
Symptomatic can vary depending on the degree of the disease.
Symptoms of arthritis of the knee joint are largely dependent on the immediate cause that caused them. Thus, acute knee arthritis begins suddenly and, unlike chronic arthritis, is characterized by severe intoxication. However, there are similar non-specific signs characteristic of arthritis of any etiology.
A clear symptom of knee arthritis is the presence of pain. At first it can be weak, appear only when loaded and disappear at rest. Then discomfort in the knee becomes regular, painful sensations arise more and more often.
There may be a small swelling of the tissues and a restriction of mobility in the joint. In the acute phase, the body temperature increases, the skin becomes redder over the affected joint, symptoms of intoxication appear: fatigue, lethargy, muscle pain.
It is possible to single out 3 degrees of joint damage , we will consider the symptomatology more in more detail.
- At this degree, the damage to the articular cartilage is negligible. Clinically manifested by pain in the joint with active movements, with their decrease at rest. There are no restrictions of mobility, walking with minor lameness. Edema of the joint is mild, the skin is not changed. Body temperature is 37.3-37.5C.
- Pathological changes in the joints are more noticeable, pain and swelling are expressed, leg mobility is limited. On the tissues of the joint, radiographic diagnosis shows erosion, syhaniya hyaline cartilage with a simultaneous thickening of the capsule, narrowing its lumen. It is possible to raise the body temperature to 38.5C.
- This stage is characterized by deforming changes in joints and bone tissue. As the disease develops, the pain syndrome leads to a sustained spasm of muscle tissue and its atrophy. X-ray of the joint shows a narrowing of the joint gap and the growth of osteophytes( growths on the conjugated bones).The patient begins to suffer from meteorological dependence. Changes in the weather are reflected in pain..Body temperature rises to high figures of 39.0 ° C or higher.
Arthritis of the knee joint in children also has its own peculiarities: the knee mostly hurts in the morning hours, and during the day the child practically does not complain about anything. It often occurs after a cold or SARS.It should be remembered that children can also develop juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with characteristic lesions of articular surfaces and permanent deformity of the joints.
Treatment of knee arthritis
In the diagnosis of arthritis of the knee joint, treatment is conservative in the initial stages.
The choice of medicines depends on the cause of the disease. There are several types of inflammatory changes in the joints. The therapeutic measures package includes:
- NSAIDs( ketonal, ibuprofen, diclofenac, meloxicam, naproxen, ketoprofen) - to relieve inflammation and pain;
- Restoration of metabolic processes( reception of chondroprotectors, vitamins and immunostimulants);
- Glucocorticosteroids( methylprednisolone, diprospan, celeston, flosterone) - for the relief of acute pain in the form of an injection in the joint cavity or splitting around the inflamed zone.
- Normalization of nourishment of joint tissues;
- Getting rid of excess weight( auriculotherapy, diet, phytotherapy to improve metabolic processes and the splitting of body fat to reduce the burden on the knees);
- Restoration of normal motor activity, ability to lower limbs, renewal of the full amplitude of movements;
- External therapy - treatment with ointment virapine, capsoderma, ketonal, vipratox, dolgite, reymon-gel, elacour, indomethacin, menovazine.
- Preventive measures to prevent recurrence of the disease.
Painful sensations will help to reduce not only medicines, but also such support means as cane or crutches.
The use of drugs for arthritis is carried out in two directions:
- pain relief;
- restoration of cartilage tissue.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as nimesulide, butadione, diclofenac, piroxicam, ibuprofen are used to reduce the pain syndrome. For emergency removal of pain syndrome, corticosteroids are used.
Etiotropic treatment of arthritis of the knee joint is to restore the substance of the cartilaginous tissue. To this end, chondroprotectors such as structum, arthra, teraflex, chondrolon and others are used. These substances improve the trophism of cartilaginous tissue, normalize metabolic processes and promote the restoration of articular cartilage.
Injection preparations of hyaluronic acid are also effective. Penetrating into the cartilaginous tissue, these drugs increase its elasticity, improving the biomechanics of the damaged joint.
If the cause of inflammation in arthritis is an infection, then you can not do without an antibiotic.
If arthritis has gone far enough, it turns into arthrosis. The disease is associated with a degenerative lesion of bones and cartilage. Against the background of pathology, cracks develop in the meniscus and synovial membranes. Over time, tissues are destroyed and degenerated.
To exclude the transformation of arthrosis into arthritis, surgeons perform arthroscopy. This intervention is conducted to review the state of anatomical structures. Through a small incision into the joint cavity, zones are introduced to view the condition of the ligaments and cartilages. With the help of the instrument, pus and inflammatory fluid can be removed. To prevent bacterial inflammation, antibiotics are injected into the joint cavity.
Nutrition plays a very important role in the treatment of joint arthritis. Diet completely eliminates the intake of spicy and salty foods. It is necessary to consume more fiber, which is found in fresh vegetables and fruits.
For joint cartilages, seafood, which has natural chondroitin, is a useful ingredient. And fatty amino acids in marine fish must necessarily be the main component of a diet for arthritis of the knee joint.
For chronic arthritis, as well as after removal of an acute condition, it is necessary to perform simple physical exercises:
Sit on a chair, then shake legs( in turn) back and forth to a state of easy fatigue.
- From the same position, hold the foot parallel to the floor for 5 seconds. The number of repetitions is 10 times for each leg.
- Lying on the back, it is necessary to lift a straight leg to a height of 25-30 cm and hold it for a few seconds. Repeat the exercise 6 times for each leg.
- An exercise simulating a bike ride is performed lying on the floor for 1 minute.
- Lie on your stomach and lift your leg up, bending it in the knee. At the same time, it is necessary to stretch the heel as close as possible to the buttock.
- Sitting on the floor, the body is tilted forward, trying to reach the toes.
The attending physician may recommend other exercises that are of a recreational nature, taking into account the course of the disease.
In the initial stages of the disease, local treatment with ointments with anti-inflammatory effect may be used.
- Diclofenac is one of the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs of the first generation. The most famous medicines containing this active substance are Voltaren, Orthofen, Diclonak-P and others.
- Bystrumgel - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for external use, a derivative of propionic acid
- Dolgit cream - in 100 g of cream contains 5 g of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen has an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.
- Nase is a synthetic drug used in the treatment of joint diseases and pain relief of various etiologies
- Ketonal is an anti-inflammatory drug with a pronounced analgesic effect. The main active substance of Ketonal is ketoprofen - a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug( NSAID).
How to treat knee arthritis with folk remedies
Traditional medicine has many recipes for treating arthritis. For the treatment of the knee joint, herbal preparations, mummies, clay-based preparations, medicinal baths, rubbers and creams are used. Let's consider some recipes in more detail.
- Mix in equal proportions valerian root with chamomile flowers and black elderberry .The mixture pour boiling water, bring to a boil, cool, squeeze, put between two layers of gauze, pribintovat to the affected joint, top cover with polyethylene or compress paper, leave a compress at night. Compress has a pronounced analgesic effect.
- You can make a tincture with the symptoms of knee arthritis from 20 grams of birch buds and 100 ml of 70-degree alcohol .The solution is infused for 2 weeks, wrung out, filtered and taken 15-30 drops 3 times a day, mixing with a tablespoon of water. Keep the tincture in a cool dark place. It can be used for external rubbing with rheumatism and arthritis for the treatment of symptoms.
- A good analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect is possessed by compresses from broths of thistles, dream-grass, calendula flowers, cones of hops and berries of juniper, thyme, water infusion of mistletoe white .
- Two teaspoons of cowberry leaves are poured into a glass of water and boiled for 15 minutes. Cool, filter and discharge during the day in small sips. This remedy is used to treat salt deposits, spondylosis, articular rheumatism, arthritis, gout and swelling.
- For joint pain , garlic, which is always in the house of , helps. Take 5 heads, peel and finely chop, pour 0.5 liters of vodka and insist 10 days in the dark. Before each meal, drink a teaspoon of tincture. If it is too strong, then the dose is diluted 3 tablespoons.boiled water. Or take 3 heads of garlic, clearing wipe on a grater, add to it juice, squeezed out of ten lemons, and 1 tsp.shredded horse-radish. Stir the mixture in a dark and warm place for 3 weeks. On a glass of water, add a spoon of cooked elixir and drink in the morning and evening until the end of the tincture.
- Pretty good for arthritis broth from bay leaf. To do this, take a pack of bay leaves and put half of it into a saucepan. Pour 300 ml of boiling water and boil for 5 minutes. After wrap it up better and let it brew for three hours. After 3 hours filter and drink before bed. And so 3 days in a row. Do not drink yesterday's broth, do not be lazy and prepare a new one every day. In a week it is necessary to repeat the course. From the very beginning, we repeat the course in a year.
Timely treatment of arthritis stops the pathological process, and this is due not only to medicines, but also folk, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment, as well as diet.