Paroxysmal tachycardia: symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention

At least once in my life a person was disturbed by attacks of sudden rapid heart rate. Especially, frightened of something or worrying. These short-term seizures in most of their cases are physiological in nature, requiring no treatment. But there are also reverse cases.

Features of attacks

Paroxysmal tachycardia is an attack of rapid contractions of the heart, which suddenly begin and end as suddenly. Usually this is from 100 to 250 beats per minute, while maintaining a normal regular rhythm. And the regularity of the rhythm and frequency throughout the attack is the hallmark of this type of tachycardia.

The duration of the attack can be different - from a few seconds to several days. Most often, the triggering mechanism of paroxysms is extrasystole.

About the types of paroxysmal tachycardia we'll talk further.

Paroxysmal tachycardia on ECG

paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Classification and forms of paroxysmal tachycardia

Depending on which cardiac chamber is shrinking first and where electrica

l impulses are formed, paroxysmal tachycardia is divided into the following types:

  • The ventricular develops if the focus is from the ventricle.
  • Nadzheludochkovaya is about 80% of all cases of tachycardia. It is subdivided into the atrial( foci of excitation in the atrium) and ventricular( AV-node - excitation source).Atrial and arthrio-ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia differ slightly in ECG.

About the causes of paroxysmal tachycardia in children and adults tell you further.

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About the features of paroxysmal tachycardia will tell the following video:

Causes of

Most often paroxysmal tachycardia occurs due to:

  • myocardiosclerosis;
  • coronary artery atherosclerosis;
  • acute and chronic myocarditis;
  • congenital anomaly of the conduction system( presence of another neural bundle in the myocardium);
  • hypertension;
  • thyrotoxicosis;
  • of nervous breakdowns;
  • smoking and alcohol intake.

Symptoms of

The main sign of the development of paroxysmal tachycardia is rapid heartbeat( more than 100 beats per minute).

  • The person at this moment feels general weakness and malaise, lack of air, dizziness, trembling in the body.
  • With prolonged seizure, the patient may experience acute heart pain, loss of consciousness, headache.

In the event that these symptoms are associated with atrial tachycardia, the disease proceeds in mild form and is associated with neuro-psychic sources of exposure. If this ventricular tachycardia is a more dangerous form of the disease, in its further development it will be characterized by more vivid clinical manifestations.

For the diagnosis of paroxysmal tachycardia, see below.

Diagnosis

features of paroxysmal tachycardia After a person has experienced an attack of paroxysmal tachycardia, it is very important at the doctor's appointment to tell about their complaints. It is important for a cardiologist to know the following:

  • than the person was busy when the onset of a fast heartbeat began;
  • what were the sensations, whether there were interruptions in the work of the heart or a feeling of emptiness in the heart, a feeling of cardiac arrest;
  • did the patient feel dizzy and dark in the eyes;
  • the person lost consciousness, fell;
  • was there a pain in the heart;
  • as the attack ended, quickly or gradually.

The physician should talk about all cardiovascular diseases, which are the most common cause of paroxysmal tachycardia. After data collection, the doctor will appoint:

  • ECG to detect signs of paroxysmal tachycardia( 24- or 48-hour monitoring);
  • heart ultrasound;
  • radionuclide scanning;
  • cardiac tomography.

On what treatment requires sinus, nodal, supraventricular, ventricular, supraventricular, atrial, atrioventricular paroxysmal tachycardia, read on.

Treatment

Therapeutic

To determine which methods to treat a patient, you should first establish the cause of the development of paroxysmal tachycardia. As a result of the survey, it may turn out that there is absolutely no need to conduct therapy. This applies to cases where paroxysm has begun to develop as a result of an ordinary physical overload or a stressful situation. For this it will be sufficient to take a sedative, lie down and relax.

More details about new trends in the treatment of paroxysmal and other types of tachycardia will be described in the video below:

Medication

In the case of supraventricular tachycardia, they begin with so-called "vagal tests".They are performed until the sinus rhythm is restored.

  • If the patient is resistant to this procedure, with repeated seizures and complications, antiarrhythmic drugs are prescribed.
  • If the latter is ineffective, electropulse therapy is used, as well as transesophageal or intracardiac cardiac electrostimulation.

Assign antiarrhythmic drugs strictly individually.

Operation

The surgical method is the most effective way to get rid of paroxysm. The purpose of the operation in the clinic for paroxysmal tachycardia is to interrupt the passage of the pulse along an additional pathway. The modern method is the method of ablation, the essence of which is to remove the focus of excitation with the help of a laser, low temperatures or cauterization.

Radiofrequency ablation is a method that does not require surgical intervention. Its essence lies in the fact that a catheter is carried through the femoral vein. Everything is monitored on the display. Then radio waves are sent to the center of excitation, which act destructively. After the procedure, a test is carried out for its effectiveness - observe changes in the rhythm of the heart.

Folk remedies

paroxysmal tachycardia symptoms Traditional medicine advises treating paroxysm in such ways:

  • take a bath with a decoction of valerian( 300 ml);
  • eat peaches and black currant;
  • take an extract of Eleutherococcus( 20 drops for half an hour before meals).

With a rapid heartbeat, you can also make such a decoction:

  1. 2 small spoons of marigold to pour a glass of boiling water, insist.
  2. Strain.
  3. Drink 4 times in half a glass.

Prevention of

To avoid paroxysmal arrhythmia, the following rules should be followed:

  • to avoid stress and conflict;
  • adhere to the regime of the day and nutrition;
  • to exclude unnecessary load;
  • not to drink coffee, do not eat spicy dishes, do not smoke, do not consume alcohol.

Remember also about this:

  • It is easy for vulnerable people, who are exposed to emotions, emotional to consult a therapist for advice. The doctor will prescribe any sedatives: corvalol, tincture of valerian, valocordin.
  • If thyrotoxicosis is the cause of paroxysm, the patient should consult an endocrinologist. If the paroxysm appeared on a background of thyrotoxicosis, then the endocrinologist will treat thyroid diseases.

And of course, you should regularly undergo medical examination, exclude disease-provoking factors and take prescribed medicines.

On what emergency care is required for paroxysmal tachycardia, read on.

Emergency care for

If tachycardia occurs, the following actions should be performed:

  • calm down and lie down;
  • provide access to fresh air, free the neck from clothing;
  • if worse, call an ambulance;
  • do not take any medication, since only a doctor can prescribe them.

Suppression of paroxysm of supraventricular tachycardia is done as follows:

  1. Inside the vein, enter:
  2. Isoptin intravenously( 10 mg in 10ml isotonic NaCl solution for 2 minutes).In the absence of effect after 10 minutes, the drug is administered repeatedly( 5-10 mg).
  3. Carrying out vagal samples( carotid sinus massage, Valsalva test).
    1. spray Digoxin( 0.5-0.1 mg) in 20ml isotonic NaCl solution for 5 minutes.
    2. spray Disopyramide( 100-150 mg / 2-3 capsules) in 20ml isotonic NaCl solution for 5 minutes.
    3. spray Anaprilin( 5 mg / 1kg) in 20ml isotonic NaCl solution( or 5% glucose) for 5 minutes.
    4. slowly Cordarone for 3-5 minutes( a dose of 5 mg / kg in 20ml glucose solution).
    5. within 4-5 minutes Novokainamid( 10ml 10% solution)

If there is no effect from the above therapy, do electrodefibrillation or frequent stimulation of both atria.

On how to relieve a paroxysmal tachycardia attack at home, the video below will tell you:

Complications of

Paroxysmal tachycardia is dangerous with the following consequences:

  • fainting;
  • sudden electrical death;
  • fainting;
  • cardiac tamponade;
  • pulmonary edema;
  • asthma cardiac;
  • ventricular fibrillation;
  • cardiocerebral syndrome.

Forecast

paroxysmal tachycardia symptoms in children The prognosis is favorable under the following conditions:

  • atrial or atrioventricular tachycardia;
  • with a frequency of repetition of seizures - no more than 1 minute;
  • at heart rate less than 180 beats per minute.

The prognosis is not defined and is worse in case of ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia.

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