Kidneys - the most important pair organ of the human body, which is responsible for removing excess fluid and dissolved in it "garbage".To be healthy, drinking water should be sufficient, then the kidneys adjust the water balance on their own. Sometimes disruptions in fluid use and other factors cause the development of various pathologies, for example, salt diathesis.
Salt diathesis of kidneys
Kidney buds all human life work tirelessly - they remove dissolved salts of various minerals with the liquid. But the inflammatory processes in the kidneys and the entire urinary system, especially chronic ones, lead to a weakening of the function of the pelvis and the development of a tendency to excess salt deposition. To some extent salts are deposited in the kidneys of all people, but they are excreted in time in the healthy with urine.
With salt diathesis in the kidneys there is an excessive amount:
- Calcium and magnesium oxalates;
- Calcium carbonates.
ICD-10 salt diathesis belongs to category E79 "Violations of the exchange of purines, pyrimidines".The disease is chronic, but it is capable of exacerbation, which most often occurs during an acute inflammatory process - cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis, urethritis, etc. And, on the contrary, sand( salt) in the renal pelvis irritates the bladder and leads to an aggravation of the inflammatory phenomena. In the absence of proper therapy, the diathesis goes to urolithiasis, when in the kidneys, the urinary bladder, the patient lays stones( stones).
Causes of the disease
Salt diathesis can occur at any age, even in toddlers. In this case, its cause is a hereditary predisposition that reflects the poor performance of the kidneys from the time of birth. But more often the problem arises in children and adolescents at different degrees of renal failure, which happens against the background of injuries, inflammatory pathologies of the kidneys, autoimmune diseases, etc.
In an adult, the causes of the development of salt diathesis are diverse. Usually the tendency to metabolic disorders is laid genetically, so the disease can be formed by the age of 20, and by 30-40 years the person has urolithiasis. Sometimes there is idiopathic diathesis - pathology, the causes of which have not been found.
The composition of food consumed to some extent also affects the development of pathology, but, mainly, becomes an aggravating factor, not the root cause. Lifestyle, alcohol abuse, lack of fluid in the diet are important risk factors.
We can also provoke a gradual development of abnormalities of pelvis functions:
For the prevention of diseases and the treatment of kidneys, our readers advise the monastery collection of Father George. It consists of 16 useful medicinal herbs, which have an extremely high efficiency in the purification of the kidneys, in the treatment of kidney diseases, urinary tract diseases, as well as in the purification of the body as a whole. Read more »
- Diseases of the thyroid gland, pituitary.
- Adrenal pathology, hypothalamus.
- Various enzymopathies.
- Congenital malformations of the structure of the kidneys, brain.
The pathogenesis of salt diathesis can be associated with three mechanisms:
- Poor assimilation of salts, and, consequently, their excessive excretion through the kidneys.
- Violation of the process of glomerular filtration or the activity of the renal tubules.
- Failures in the nervous and hormonal regulation of kidney function.
Symptoms in adults
There is no symptomatology at the very beginning of the pathology. Only laboratory tests can reflect the presence of salts in the kidneys. So, with the accumulation of oxalates, the pH of urine rises above 5.5-6 units, in urine calcium oxalates, calcium carbonate are detected. If a patient develops urate diathesis, urine, on the contrary, becomes acidic( pH below 5.5).Appear crystals of mineral salts. The color of the urine becomes darker. In the presence of phosphates, the density of urine decreases, it becomes turbid, acquires a peculiar smell.
In an adult person, clinical signs appear only after salt and altered urine begin to irritate the bladder wall. Women exhibit symptoms of cystitis( pain, burning in the bladder, especially with urination, frequent urination in the toilet), in men - signs of urethritis with painful urination.
Sometimes the first symptom of the pathology is renal colic, which, in fact, is already a complication of salt diathesis - an inflammatory process in the kidney.
Other possible signs of salt diathesis:
- Back pain, lower back.
- Bloody discharge in the urine.
- Pain in the lower abdomen after going to the toilet.
- Exacerbation of prostatitis in men.
Signs in children
In childhood, pathology develops infrequently. Usually even congenital salt diathesis is in a compensated form and does not manifest itself until a certain time.
Over time, the child begins to develop inflammatory pathologies of the urinary system, which are expressed:
- Poor urine tests.
- Recurring colic, pain in the lower back.
- Increased body temperature.
- General ill health.
- Darkening of urine.
- Cuts in the abdomen.
- A reddish residue in the urine.
Most often, the child develops an acute stage of the disease, during which he is hospitalized( acute pyelonephritis or cystitis).In the absence of rapid care, kidney failure with swelling, increased or decreased pressure, vomiting, and other severe symptoms can quickly develop in children.
Diagnosis of pathology
Often, a diagnosis of salt diathesis is made when conducting a routine ultrasound examination of the kidneys. On US it is easy to determine the characteristic signs of pathology and its complications( if already there are concrements, inflammation).
Urine tests are of great importance( general clinical, biochemical analyzes, daily diuresis).To search for the cause and evaluation of the severity of the kidney condition, blood tests are mandatory( biochemistry for urea, creatinine, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, ammonia analysis, sugar).
An important step in the therapy of pathology is the normalization of the water balance. If there are no contraindications, drink more than 2 liters of water / day to increase diuresis. With an increase in the excretion of water by the kidneys, harmful salts will also be released. The way of life, food also changes without fail.
Also, drugs are recommended for those who have already identified a sufficient amount of sand in the urine. Medicines are selected depending on the type of salt diathesis, more precisely - deposits in the renal pelvis.
It can be:
- Magnesium preparations;
- Potassium citrate;
- Complexes of sodium and potassium;
- Phosphotech or Xidiphon;
- Cystone, Phytolysin;
It is strictly forbidden to prescribe for yourself treatment, without proper diagnosis, because this can exacerbate the situation. In the presence of stones, diuretics are contraindicated, since they are capable of provoking a blockage of the urinary tract. In the presence of complications, you may need ultrasound breaking of stones or even a surgical operation.
Folk "preparations" are widely used to normalize salt metabolism and improve the condition of the kidneys. Phytomassage is most often prescribed by urologists and nephrologists themselves, because herbs have a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, regenerating effect.
Treatment of saline diathesis of kidney folk remedies is accompanied by taking bearberry, chamomile, corn stigmas, spores, birch. Useful to the patient is also berries cranberries, cranberries. When depositing phosphate salts it is recommended to drink infusion of black elderberry. All folk remedies require the approval of the attending physician and, if necessary, are supplemented with medications.
Nutrition plays a huge role in restoring kidney health and normalizing metabolic processes. The diet for salt diathesis should be milk-vegetable or, on the contrary, protein. If the pH of urine is closer to alkaline, the acidity of urine can be increased by meat, fish, cereals, but vegetables and fruits are limited, like lactic acid foods. From the plant food is not harmful pumpkin, sour apples, green peas, cranberries.
On the contrary, with acid reaction of urine, meat, fish food, broths, eggs are far from useful. Meat and fish can be eaten not more than 2 times a week in small portions and only in a boiled form.
Avitaminosis with any of the diets can not be allowed, so the patient is assigned vitamin complexes. In the presence of obesity, the diet should also be adjusted in favor of a low-calorie diet. The amount of salt in the diet is determined by the doctor, often it will be greatly reduced. Nutrition contributes to the rapid improvement of the kidneys and to prevent the development of complications of the disease.