If a person has no problems with heart health, then he does not feel it. The appearance of discomfort during stress, excitement or even during a rest is an occasion to check the work of the heart from a specialist.
Sometimes, in order to improve the condition it is enough to introduce several health-improving rules into your lifestyle, in some cases you will need medical help. Early treatment of a consultation always turns to the benefit of the patient.
Features of the
state The heart beat rhythm sets the sinus node that is located in the right atrium. Impulses the pacemaker distributes through the conductive system. Its fibers branch and are distributed along the walls of the heart.
The case where the impulse causing the heartbeat originates outside the conduction system and causes an extraordinary contraction of the heart is called extrasystole. Palpitations caused by such impulses occur with an inferior cardiac contraction.
The phenomenon of extrasystole in itself can be dangerous
for the general condition or not only in the context of the disease that triggered it. It is important how the myocardium performs its functions, whether there are organic lesions of the heart.
In a child, supraventricular extrasystole often does not give any symptoms, it runs unnoticed. With this diagnosis, the feeling of irregular heartbeat begins to appear in adolescence.
Do not confuse supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles, these are different states. Also, cases of confusion with supraventricular tachycardia with ventricular extrasystole are not uncommon.
About what is a single and twin, a rare and frequent nadzheludochkovaya extrasystole, we will tell in the next chapter.
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More details about extrasystoles will be told by the following video:
foci Locations where impulse origin occurs in supraventricular extrasystole is called ectopic foci. By their localization, pathology is divided into varieties:
- atrioventricular extrasystole - impulses that cause extraordinary contractions have their foci in the septum that divides the ventricles and atria;
- atrial extrasystole - foci with impulses formed in the atria.
Regularity of pulses
The manifestation of extraordinary pulses can occur in accordance with some regularity or chaotic. According to this feature, the following are distinguished:
- Allorhythmia - normal contraction alternates with a certain number of extrasystoles( for example: one, two or three), that is, a rhythmic pattern is observed.
- Unordered - extraordinary reductions occur with respect to normal abbreviations in an arbitrary mode.
Number of ectopic foci
Depending on the number of ectopic foci, the disease is classified into variants:
- polytope supraventricular extrasystole - in a patient, several foci induce pulses outside the conductive system;
- monotopic extrasystole - extraordinary cuts are initiated by a single focus.
Frequency is distinguished:
- group - if between normal rhythms pass several consecutive extrasystoles,
- paired - among the normal contractions there are extraordinary for two consecutive;
- multiple - this is the case when there are more than five extraordinary cardiac contractions per minute;
- single supraventricular extrasystole - less than five extrasystoles occur per minute.
Time of onset of
Extrasystoles are subdivided by the time of their onset:
- late - appear simultaneously with contraction of the ventricles;
- interpolated - appear at the time between contractions of the ventricles and atria;
- early - appear simultaneously with atrial contractions.
Causes of supraventricular extrasystole
Heart rhythm disorders caused by extraordinary contractions occur in healthy people. When the reasons for this phenomenon are not revealed, then they speak of idiopathic extrasystole.
Some factors can provoke an arrhythmia of this kind:
- diseases associated with endocrine disorders:
- adrenocortical dysfunction,
- disruptions in the thyroid gland,
- diabetes mellitus;
- heart disease:
- myocardial infarction,
- heart failure,
- heart ischemia;
- effect of toxins:
- excessive drinking;
- oxygen starvation,
- vegetative disorders,
- continued use of certain medicines intended for the treatment of the heart:
- antiarrhythmic drugs,
- cardiac glycosides;
- violation of electrolyte balance.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- , the patient observes that there is discomfort in the heart area, this can be expressed by such sensations:
- "coup" of the heart,
- cardiac pulsation,
- some strokes occur outside the rhythm;The
- patient embraces a panic that he may die;
- dizziness, weakness.
The specialist on the basis of complaints and inspection makes an assumption about the disease.
The inspection consists of the actions:
- measuring the number of cardiac contractions and comparing this value with the pulse,
- tapping the boundaries of the heart,
- listening to the rhythm of the heart.
To clarify the diagnosis, the following examinations are performed:
- Electrocardiography - the device records the electrical impulses of the heart, which show whether or not extrasystole exists. On ECG, supraventricular extrasystole is best seen.
- Holter monitoring is also an ECG, but in the daily monitoring mode. The patient wears a day a portable device that takes readings of heart signals. At the same time, a diary is kept about what kind of activities the patient, loads, moods were engaged in.
- Echocardiography - gives information on the basis of which it is possible to determine the cause of extrasystole.
- Electrocardiography with a load( the heart is stimulated by electric pulses) - the method allows to evaluate the functioning of the conducting system.
- Urine and blood tests( general analysis and biochemistry)
In most cases, supraventricular extrasystole does not need special treatment. If the disorder is caused by some disease, then it is necessary to treat it.
Basically, help the body, creating a healthy lifestyle.
- The diet is balanced: there should be a lot of vegetable fiber, from fatty and canned food refuse.
- Keep an even emotional state.
- Walking in the open air, included in the daily routine, will help improve the overall health of the heart.
- Should pick up feasible physical exertion.
- Do not drink alcoholic beverages.
- Quitting smoking will create a noticeable healing effect.
On the therapy of extrasystoles, the following video will describe in more detail the following video:
The specialist can prescribe, depending on the patient's condition, such drugs:
- β-blockers, if the patient does not have a bradycardia and low pressure:
- calcium antagonists:
- antiarrhythmic drugs that are classified as first class:
- and others.
Assign patients surgical intervention, if other methods have not had a positive effect, more often to young patients. Cauterization of the site, which gives extraordinary impulses.
The operation is carried out:
- Closed by the method of radiofrequency catheter ablation. The electrode is inserted into the heart with a catheter through a large vessel.
- With open procedure, the excision of the site of the cardiac tissue is performed, on which special impulses are created.
Herbal preparations can be taken only with the approval of the attending physician. Self-medication is unacceptable. Due to the fact that heart health is useful for heart health:
- positive emotional background,
- healthy sleep,
- calm nerves,
it is possible to use infusions and decoctions of herbs:
- lemon balm,
The condition of the heart is very responsive to activities that support a healthy lifestyle.
The regime of the day and habits should be reviewed and rules should be introduced:
- Refuse to overload and other types of overload,
- maintain a cheerful positive emotional background.
- Take food useful for the heart, exclude:
- fried food,
- spicy and canned food,
- fatty foods,
- containing harmful additives.
- Eat foods that are high in fiber. Useful food containing minerals:
- and calcium( in moderation).
- It is useful to enrich the diet:
- with bananas,
- dried apricots,
- The reception should be limited or, if possible, excitatory drinks:
- Quitting smoking immediately adds health to the cardiovascular system.
Heart rhythm disorders in extrasystoles in some cases can cause adverse side effects:
- heart failure,
- atrial fibrillation,
- at the atria may occur structural changes.
With supraventricular extrasystole, the prognosis does not include extraordinary cardiac contractions. Only the reasons that caused them are taken into account.
How serious are those factors, the consequence of which is arrhythmia, and whether it is possible to eliminate them - the answers to these questions and will create a prognosis for a particular patient.