When gastroduodenitis is diagnosed, a pathology is revealed - the inflammatory process of the mucosa affecting two organs at once: the stomach and intestines. It can arise for various reasons. But the mechanism of destruction is the same: first a chronic gastritis is formed, then, with improper treatment and non-compliance with restrictive norms, it also passes to the duodenum.
Causes of gastroduodenitis
There may be several causes of inflammation. All of them can be divided into two large groups: internal( endogenous) and external( exogenous).
Endogenous factors are associated with disorders occurring within the body. These are:
- Increased acid formation.
- Reduces the formation of mucus.
- Failures in hormonal regulation of secretion.
- Genetic predisposition.
In addition, gastroduodenitis in adults can be a consequence of other pathological conditions of the liver, biliary tract, endocrine changes.
Exogenous factors are associated with physical effects:
- Improper diet( meager diet, dry food, excessive consumption of fried, canned, flour and sweet).
- Receiving too spicy, salty and sour food, too cold or hot food.
- Chemical exposure( use of products with pesticides, excessive use of medicines).
- Hit in the digestive tract of bacteria Helicobacter pylori.
- Frequent stress.
- Unfavorable mental situation around.
- Infection of the oral cavity.
- Bad habits( alcohol and tobacco abuse).
Symptoms of gastroduodenitis
Chronic gastroduodenitis in adults and children manifests itself in different ways. But there are common etymological points in the disease. The manifestation of characteristic symptoms depends on various causes: their localization is important, the stage of development of the pathological process, the degree of structural changes and metabolic processes are taken into account.
The first signal can be general syndromes:
- Pain in the epigastric region that occurs during hunger.
- Severe heartburn and sour belch.
- Fast fatigue.
- Reduced appetite.
To diagnose gastroduodenitis of the stomach and duodenum can be, if the patient reveals the pallor of the skin, rapid weight loss, severe pain during palpation of the stomach. A characteristic yellow coating appears on the tongue, and traces of teeth remain on the lateral parts of the tongue due to a strong puffiness.
Often revealed violations in the work of the intestine. The patient is tormented by diarrhea or constipation, and in chronic stages, their alternation occurs. The instability of the excretory function of the intestine is a bright syndrome of the described ailment.
Usually gastroduodenitis in adults has a stable cyclicity. The phases of exacerbation after a certain time are replaced by remission. Aggravation occurs in the spring and autumn. Spontaneous pain with proper treatment disappear after 10 days from the onset of the onset. But with palpation, painful sensations, nevertheless, are detected for another three weeks from the beginning of the relapse. The duration of exacerbation of the disease may be different, but it usually does not last longer than two months.
If gastroduodenitis occurs in the absence of the symptoms listed above and pronounced morphological manifestations, the remission phase is diagnosed.
In children, gastroduodenitis proceeds much brighter. After an hour or two after a meal, there are always severe pains in the epigastric region. The child is constantly tormented by heartburn, often there are nausea accompanied by vomiting. In addition, the gastroduodenitis of the 12-типерстной intestine in children always causes the formation of an unstable psycho-emotional background. Toddlers suffer severe headaches, there are disturbances in sleep and fatigue.
There are several varieties of gastroduodenitis. They can be classified according to the etiologic factor, prevalence, localization region, acidity level
Given the causes of the inflammatory process of the gastrointestinal mucosa, primary and secondary gastroduodenitis are isolated. Primary arises when the disease is provoked by external factors, the secondary - by internal factors. Details about them have already been told above.
Prevalence of gastroduodenitis of the 12-colon
When inflammation affects the entire gastrointestinal mucosa, a common gastroduodenitis of the duodenum and stomach is diagnosed. If a history of only a lesion of a particular area, it is a localized inflammation. For the area where the pathology is localized, and what development it has, allocate:
- Chronic ulcerative gastroduodenitis.
- Chronic gastritis-like.
- A cholecystitis-like type.
- Pancreot like.
Chronic ulcerative gastroduodenitis is the most common variety that occurs against a background of gastritis or ulcers. The causes of its appearance is excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid, it promotes the oxidation of food masses, they stagnate in the duodenum, provoking a lesion of the mucosa.
Symptoms of this type are similar to those of a peptic ulcer. The pains are noisy, they are localized in the upper part of the abdomen in the solar plexus, they are given to the left hypochondrium and arise when the patient is hungry for a long time, or in the morning on an empty stomach. Very rarely there is nausea, but vomiting of noticeable relief does not bring. But occasionally the non-strong temperature rises. Heartburn gives rise to a burp, but not sour, but bitter. The patient is concerned about severe headaches, frequent dizziness leads to general weakness.
Chronic gastritis-like gastroduodenitis is almost always combined with atrophic gastritis or with common inflammation of the duodenum. Because of this, the absorption of food is disturbed, there are problems with digestion. Individual intolerance of individual products appears.
Symptoms of this pathology differ slightly from those described above. The pains are noisy, they appear not on an empty stomach, but immediately after a meal and last 1,5-2 hours, then, as a rule, subsiding and disappearing with themselves. Pain is invariably accompanied by a feeling of a full stomach. To the throat rolls eructation with the taste of the eaten food. In the mouth there is always abundant saliva. The patient's appetite disappears, he gradually grows thin, significantly losing weight.
Further, disease gastroduodenitis cholecystitis-like type develops against a background of intestinal motility disorder. Inside the hollow organ there are dystrophic changes that progress, forming obstruction. It is she who becomes the source of severe pain in the epigastrium on the right. The intestine is constantly grumbling, there is bloating and belching with bitterness.
Pancreot-like gastroduodenitis is diagnosed when the inflammation passes to the pancreas. That's why pains arise in the right side, are given in the back. At external survey the gastroenterologist reveals icterus of a skin. A characteristic symptom is the appearance of milk intolerance.
For gastric quality, gastroduodenitis is divided with a normal secretory function, with increased secretory function and reduced secretory function.
Diagnosis of gastroduodenitis
Chronic gastroduodenitis of the duodenum is diagnosed by a clinical observation performed by a gastroenterologist. In a personal conversation, the doctor identifies common symptoms and determines the methods for further investigation. Diagnosis of gastroduodenitis consists of several stages.
- First, an endoscopic examination is performed. It identifies lesions, shows the prevalence of pathology, but the presence or absence of atrophy endoscopy does not show.
- It is possible to identify them with the help of histology - a mandatory type of diagnosis of the described disease. Histology helps to reliably estimate the degree of development of the inflammatory process.
- Evaluation of secretory functions allows intragastric pH-metry. Its essence lies in the fact that through the esophagus a probe is inserted into the stomach, at the ends of which two electrodes are built. It allows you to measure the level of acidity. Based on the research data, a fairly accurate diagnosis is made.
- Electrogastrography( EGG) and ultrasound of the stomach filled with water, makes it possible to evaluate the motor function.
- Fluoroscopy reveals the quality of the evacuation function of the digestive tract.
- To clarify the scheme of treatment, it is useful to carry out diagnosis of HP-infection. Identify the presence of helicobacteriosis in three ways: a histological method, a respiratory test and a bacterioscopy.
The results of all diagnostic studies help not only to confirm the diagnosis, but also to identify a variety of gastroduodenitis in adults and children.
Treatment of gastroduodenitis
From all of the above it becomes clear that gastroduodenitis is a multi-symptomatic disease, therefore it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis. Modern diagnostics can do this, so the gastroenterologist is able to prescribe a very effective treatment. As a rule, it is complex. Therapy consists of:
- Strictly adherence to the food regime.
- Application of a therapeutic diet.
- Medication treatment.
- Use of folk remedies.
The effectiveness of treatment depends largely on identifying the causes of the disease and their elimination. During the exacerbation the patient is prescribed a pastel two-week regimen. The patient is put on a diet. Now he will need to eat 5-6 times a day in small portions. In the period of remission, walks in the fresh air and employment by non-power sports are useful.
The most effective medicine is a medical diet. During the acute phase, it is necessary to use "Table 1", after it ends it switches to the "Table No. 5" diet.
Medication for gastroduodenitis
The choice of effective drugs also depends on the identification of the underlying causes of inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Their appointment is carried out by a doctor - gastroenterologist, self-medication in this case is unacceptable. The specialist will not only make the necessary scheme, but also determine the dosage. What drugs can be used?
- Tablets that block the production of hydrochloric acid. They reduce pain, remove heartburn and nausea, bloating and a feeling of heaviness.
- Antibiotics that can kill the Helicobacter pylori bacteria.
- Anesthetics help relieve pain. For the same purpose, medications are prescribed for the enveloping properties.
- The healing of cracks and ulcers is facilitated by probiotics.
- To correct the immunity and restore the functions of the gastrointestinal tract help symptomatic remedies( vitamins, soothing drugs).
Physiotherapy with gastroduodenitis
Additional options for treatment are opened by physiotherapy. Today, gastroduodenitis easily loses its position if, along with medical treatment, the patient takes the following procedures:
- Mud treatment.
Folk remedies and prophylaxis of gastroduodenitis
Often, along with medicamental treatment, certain folk remedies are prescribed, they help to quickly remove the pronounced symptoms of gastroduodenitis. It can be herbal decoctions and infusions, useful teas and kissels, useful salads, treatment of sea-buckthorn. A detailed description of the recipes is the subject of a separate article.
Prevention of gastroduodenitis is very important for all health in general. To prevent the development of inflammatory processes, it is necessary to eat right, not to allow long breaks between meals, not to lean on fried, strongly salty, sour and bitter.
If the pathology still developed, you can not self-medicate, you can not delay the visit to the gastroenterologist. To remove inflammation, you need to use any available methods. Otherwise gastroduodenitis of the stomach can deprive a person of work capacity and develop into a peptic ulcer.