Positron emission tomography is the newest method of radioisotope diagnostics used to study not only oncological, but also cardiological, neurological ailments. In oncology allows to carry out tumor research, to determine the presence of metastases, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
The peculiarity is that information is obtained about the metabolism at the cellular level. The study identifies cancer at its earliest stages.
The method refers to nuclear medicine, its feature consists in the ability, with the help of special equipment, to track biologically active compounds in the body.
At what diseases is used?
Used for analysis of myocardial hibernation for people who need to bypass or transplant the coronary artery, heart.
The procedure allows you to distinguish metastases from necrosis, fibrosis.
Effectively determines the feature of pulmonary nodules, and also how much they are metabolically active.
PET is effective in the diagnosis of cancer:
- of the lung,
- of the neck,
- of lymphoma,
- of melanoma.
Can be combined with other research methods.
PET-CT has the only contraindication - pregnancy, breast-feeding. This is due to the fact that the radiation method.
Not recommended for people in difficult conditions. The study is conducted for a sufficiently long period of time, and the patient has to remain stationary.
Contraindication is diabetes mellitus in studies with glucose components. Then the consultation of the attending physician, preliminary correction of blood sugar level is necessary.
Modern equipment is used for PET, which allows increasing the efficiency of the procedure.
- high diagnostic accuracy,
- possibility to replace several different types of diagnostics at once,
- no pain and discomfort,
- possibility to cover all or only several organs in one study,
- no harm from the procedure.
The main task of this research method is to obtain a color image of the chemical activity occurring in the human body. This distinguishes positron emission tomography from other processes, allows you to see the changes when other methods do not show them.
Principle of Positron Emission Tomography
The work is based on the peculiarities of pathological and healthy tissues to absorb energy rays.
With the help of a tomograph, the blood flow is recorded, the tissues absorbing oxygen and glucose. To do this, the patient is given a small amount of radioactive composition that emits invisible rays. They are registered by the technician.
The computer processes the received information and converts it to a graphical view. The brightness of the image depends on the amount of radioactive material.
In malignant formations the metabolism is higher, because such a region will be with more saturated colors.
PET in oncology
In this medical direction, tomography is used in many types of tumors. It allows:
- to evaluate the stage of development of cancer,
- to choose the most suitable method of treatment,
- to determine the effectiveness of conducted chemotherapy,
- to reveal relapses after treatment.
Specialists receive a clear understanding of the location of the education and its aggressiveness. A method of investigation is performed after one course of therapy is completed.
Preparation for the
Study The preparation depends on which part of the body is examined. If the brain, then a day is better to limit the consumption of sugar.
A light breakfast is allowed on the day of the study.
When studying other organs, sugar restriction is recommended, and 12 hours before the test, one should not eat, only water is allowed to drink.
Drugs are used only with the permission of the doctor.
How is the research conducted?
The scanner is located in a separate room. It looks like a large tube with a lot of sensors aimed at radioactive radiation. First the patient is put on a couch, the radioactive substance is injected into the vein. Sometimes it is given to breathe in the form of gas.
For 30-60 minutes it is necessary to lie down. In this case, talking, stirring is not allowed. During this time, the radioactive substance is distributed throughout the body.
The couch moves into the tomograph. Sensors detect radiation and transmit signals to a computer that processes and displays the image. The procedure itself will take about 35 minutes. Sometimes the doctor may ask to drink after the test to remove the reactive substance from the body.
Decoding of the results
It is always deciphered by a qualified expert. The result is a diagnostic conclusion.
The first conclusions can be made immediately after the test, but it takes several days to get the full picture.
Areas of increased metabolism may indicate the presence of a tumor. Reducing blood flow, increasing the metabolism of glucose in the heart are a sign of blockage of blood vessels and coronary heart disease.
Average price of positron emission tomography
Prices depend on what part of the body is being examined. If the whole body is diagnosed, everything is scanned from the eyeballs to the middle of the thigh or to the heel.
The cost of such an investigation is about 50,000 rubles. With the appointment of the bolus contrast, about 4000 rubles are added. The price of positron emission tomography of the brain in Moscow and St. Petersburg starts from 7800, and hearts from 6000.
Where can PET be made?
The examination can be done in almost any private oncological center. They are more often used radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG. In the capital, diagnostics are conducted in:
- Institute of Clinical Radiology,
- Central Clinical Hospital No.1,
- Radiosurgery Center,
- Scientific Center of Vascular Surgery.
In St. Petersburg:
- Human Brain Institute,
- Military Medical Academy,
- Central Scientific Research Institute of Roentgenology.
In conclusion, note that before taking the extract from the medical history, medical records. It is not recommended to take pregnant women and children with them, they should be away from irradiation.
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