One of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, polyps, are neoplasms on the surface of the mucosa. They can be located in any department, but most often there is a development of tumor-like formation in the antral-pyloric stomach( almost half the time), and the next in frequency of appearance is the cardiac part of the stomach. The name of the cardia they received because of the location near the heart, which in Latin sounds like "cor"( heart).
Located in the transition of the esophagus into the stomach, cardiac pulp( sphincter) prevents the food from passing back from the stomach to the esophagus. If cardiac dysfunction occurs, excessive acid enters the esophagus and an inflammatory process starts, which without proper treatment can develop into a malignant tumor of the esophagus.
Polyps of the cardia of the stomach
The causes of the formation of cardia, according to most researchers are:
- Inflammatory processes that lead to spontaneous growth of epithelial cells.
- Incorrect regeneration flow, when overgrowth appears as a result of excessive proliferation on the surface of the cardia.
- The theory of embryonic dystopia, in which it is believed that polyps arise as a result of abnormal development of the gastric mucosa at the embryonic level. By the way, this statement is confirmed by the data of growth of such pathology, as in children. Polyps of the cardiac department of the stomach in children literally in a few years grew according to the frequency of detection from 0.54% to 13%.
Clinic and Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disease
There is no definite symptomatology in the polyp of the cardia, and pathology is found in studies of complaints of pain in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, heartburn. Among the main methods of diagnosing the disease can be called:
- Endoscopic examination, in which it is possible to detect swelling of the mucous membrane of a cylindrical, spherical or hemispherical shape of small dimensions. As a rule, such protrusions have a smooth shiny surface with a more intense coloration than the surrounding mucosa. The possibility of an endoscopic method to perform a targeted biopsy allows a high probability of avoiding the degeneration of a benign tumor into a malignant entity. Careful morphological study of a polyp specimen taken with endoscopy allows one to determine its structure and character.
- X-ray examination specifies the number of polyps, their location, size. In addition, if there is a presence at the base of the formation of gastric wall defects in the form of unevenness and retraction, indicates a high probability of cancer transformation.
The polyp of the prepyloric stomach can be of two types, existing both in single and in plural, with sizes from one millimeter to several centimeters. The most common hyperplastic type of disease, which is usually benign, but there is always the risk of evolution into another type - adenomatous. The adenomatous polyp of the prepiloric department does not differ in appearance from hyperplastic. The danger of this type is in the large proportion of the probability of its transformation into a malignant tumor.
The polyp of cardia is characterized by the highest frequency of conversion to poor-quality tumors in comparison with other neoplasms, which indicates the development of the adenomatous type of the disease. Therefore, when choosing a method of treatment, surgical removal of the tumor is often recommended. The most gentle way is endoscopic polypectomy. The advantage of this operation is that along with the therapeutic purpose, diagnostic and preventive functions are simultaneously performed.
This method of treatment can not be used in the presence of certain diseases that can contribute to the development of severe complications. It is impossible to carry out endoscopic surgery for diffuse polyposis of the stomach, large polyps with a wide leg of 2.5-3 centimeters, as well as a low level of blood clotting. In these cases, it is preferable to perform a cavitary operation.
Small growths of cardia cells are removed on an outpatient basis. After endoscopic removal, one in ten patients can relapse in the form of new polyps at the site of removal. If the results of the study determine malignancy, then in this case the stomach is resected. To prevent the emergence of repeated cardiovascular malignancies, it is necessary to follow the diet, diet and lead a healthy lifestyle. In addition, no less than at least once a year, to conduct a study of the stomach.