Oncomarkers are complex substances of protein nature, manifested as a result of tumor activity, released by healthy cells in cancer invasions.
They are on the surface of new cells and partially pass into the bloodstream. They can be studied through a blood test. There are about 200 types, 1/10 of them are suitable for diagnosis. Among them, the cancer marker CA 125.
What does the CA 125 oncoprotein mean and indicate?
It is a glycoprotein detected in the endometrium, pleura, pericardium. The compound is found in the pancreas, bronchi and other organs.
Although the oncomarker is an antigen of a specific type of epithelium, it can be found in the tissues of the endometrium and in the uterus. It is contained in liquids and never enters the blood plasma. An exception is the violation of natural barriers after abortion or during menstruation.
Find the protein in the fetus. It is found in the cells of the epithelium of the digestive and respiratory organs.
Analyzing this protein is required
for people who are at risk. In this case, one analysis per year is assigned.
The procedure is mandatory for people:
- working in hazardous industries,
- living in an unfavorable ecological setting,
- having a hereditary predisposition.
How do I take a blood test for the oncoprotein CA 125?
Today diagnostics are carried out on modern equipment. But to get reliable information you need to carefully prepare. The analysis itself is taken from the vein.
On the eve:
- restrict or eliminate the consumption of fatty foods,
- refuse to take alcohol,
- do not eat before the procedure.
On the day of donating blood, refrain from smoking. Women undergo research in the first phase of the menstrual cycle, that is, 2-3 days after the end of the bleeding.
Some external factors influence the obtained data:
If before oncology was treated, then a second study is carried out every three months.
Explanation of the results of the
The CA 125 125 oncologist has a molecular weight of 220 kD, but only the physician can make the decoding, since false positive results are often obtained. They should immediately be compared with the clinical picture and other pathologies.
Normal for women
In the absence of pathology, the test shows no more than 10-15 units / ml. But if the quantity is more, but does not reach 35, then the doctor can talk about the acceptable values.
If the indicators are slightly increased, the woman will be examined for inflammatory diseases of the ovaries and benign formations.
It happens that the concentration is increased several times. Then a person goes many times to retake, so that the oncologist can assess the condition in dynamics.
Sometimes the oncoprotein CA 125 gives high results because of the woman's age. During the menopause in the body, all the processes start to flow especially, which affects the composition of the blood. In these cases it is important to visit an oncologist.
Reasons for exceeding the norm
Normally, every female body has CA 125. But the oncomarker is in small amounts and penetrates into the bloodstream if it is disturbed.
During menstruation, the indices can be slightly increased, which is considered the norm. The upper limit of the norm is found in the first trimester of pregnancy.
The increase in the rate occurs when:
- of the ovary,
- of inflammatory diseases of female diseases,
- chronic hepatitis and pancreatitis.
Specialists note that an insignificant increase in the rates can occur during ARVI.Clinical studies have revealed that in 1% of the population the concentration of oncomarker is increased. This is found in 6% of the population with benign formations.
In conclusion, we note that sometimes the CA 125 is normal, but a woman is at risk. Then an analysis is made for HE 4, which allows to diagnose epithelial cancer of the ovaries and promptly detect relapses of the disease.
Based on the research, the doctor can not put oncologic diagnosis. Only a detailed study will help to identify it at an early stage.
What kind of markers are prescribed for the ovarian cyst, the following video will tell: