The term "extrasystole" is used to designate the appearance of a nerve impulse with a subsequent reduction in the heart, ahead of a normal rhythm. Depending on the place of origin of the pulse, several types of extrasystole are distinguished. One of the types is supraventricular extrasystole.
Features of extrasystole
Premature reduction of the heart department is not always noticed by the patient if the provoking factors to the further development of the disease were absent. But, if another heart disease occurs, the arrhythmia is aggravated, which becomes dangerous for the life of the child and adult.
Children can not express their condition with words, do not suspect about the existing pathology, therefore in childhood it is more difficult to suspect the presence of a disease than for adults. Supraventricular type of extrasystole is several times less frequent than ventricular type.
More details on what it is, rare and frequent sinus, single, otic supraventricular extrasystoles, read on.
Supraventricular extrasystole has several varieties. The source of the focus can be taken as a basis for classification, etc.
Localization of the focus
Localization of the focus of excitation distinguishes:
- sinus sudden contraction, i.e.the focus of excitation is in the sinus-atrial node;
- atrial pathology, in which excitation is generated in structures of atypical musculature of the atria;
- is an atrioventricular type of extrasystole, originating in the atrioventricular node, localized in the tissue that separates the atria and ventricles.
By the number of excitations
By the number of excitations per 1 minute:
- single, if there are 1-5 unscheduled reductions;
- paired, formed by 2 pulses with a minimum interval of time among themselves;
- group( several extrasystoles are noted in a short period of time);
- multiple, the number of which exceeds 5 premature contractions.
By the number of premature contractions
By the number of premature abbreviations:
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- monotopic, if the emerging source of excitation is the only one;
- polytopic - foci of generation of a nerve impulse somewhat.
On organization of extrasystole
On organization of extrasystoles:
- organized( there is a pattern of a certain sequence of impulses of premature and planned);
- unorganized( the pattern of alternation of premature and time-scheduled impulses is absent).
Based on the development time of
On the development time:
- early, characterized by contractions at the 1st stage of the cardiac cycle - atrial systole;
- mean, occurring in the post-systolic period of the atria, preceding the systole of the ventricles;
- late, when the supraventricular extrasystole manifests itself during the systole of the ventricles.
Symptomatic supraventricular extrasystole is divided into:
- organic, during which the patient in a standing position feels worse than lying down;
- functional, characterized by a better state of health of the patient when standing.
Causes of the occurrence of supraventricular extrasystole
Supraventricular extrasystole is a rare disease, sometimes not having causes of, and especially in childhood, significant manifestations. In more than half of cases, supraventricular extrasystole is recorded with:
- Cardiac pathologies:
- myocarditis - inflammation of the musculature of the heart( myocardium);
- ischemic heart disease, in which the circulatory system suffers from oxygen starvation during a blood flow disturbance in the heart;
- damage to the heart muscle is not inflammatory and vascular in nature( cardiomyopathy);
- formed scar from connective tissue after acute myocardial infarction;
- heart failure, when the main circulatory system is not able to fully perform its functions;
- heart defects of any etiology.
- Taking certain medicines in conditions of uncontrolled use or periods of application exceeding those specified by the doctor or in the instructions for the drug. As a drug, a similar effect is achieved by taking:
- medication that normalizes a heart rhythm failure;
- diuretics, increasing secretion and urinary output;
- cardiac glycosides, aimed at improving the performance of the myocardium in conditions of reducing the overall load on the organ.
- Changes in the acid-base balance when the norm of the content of alkaline and alkaline-earth metal ions( K +, Ca2 +, Na +, etc.) is shifted.
- Toxic effects of certain poisons, including nicotine and alcohol.
- Deviations in the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.
- Repeated states of hypoxia resulting from apnea( nocturnal respiratory arrest), anemia, bronchial inflammation.
- Endocrine system diseases:
- excessive release of thyroid hormones into the blood by the thyroid gland and destroying their action against cells( thyrotoxicosis state);
- impaired adrenal function;
- diabetes mellitus, causing deviations in the concentration of glucose in the blood.
- No apparent causes( idiopathic cause).
Symptoms of pathology
It is not always possible to recognize a disease on time because of its low manifestation of symptoms. When symptoms appear, the disease goes to the next stage, which has to be treated longer and more difficult. Usually, the following symptoms are found in patients:
- the heart is working with interruptions, sometimes there is a feeling that it "pops out of the chest";
- malaise, a feeling of discomfort;
- excessive sweating;
- increased irritability;
- anxiety, fear of death;
- circling in the head;
- oxygen starvation( not enough air).
Supraventricular extrasystole is often accompanied by another cardiac or somatic disease. Vegeto-vascular dystonia is characterized by increased innervation of the heart by the parasympathetic department of the autonomic nervous system, independent of the degree of physical exertion and is accompanied by the symptoms described above. When examined on an electrocardiogram, supraventricular extrasystole is detected.
The disease accompanies and osteochondrosis of the upper spine, while the blood vessels are infringed and the blood supply to the heart and other organs is insufficient.
Extraordinary heart beats - a parameter of compensation of the work of the parasympathetic system, aimed at weakening the work of the heart after eating.
Most often, the disease can be detected using an electrocardiogram. This is the most widely available method available for all clinics. In some cases, when it is required to find out the dependence of the occurrence of extrasystole on physical activity, one resorts to measuring the ECG parameters after performing the physical load of the patient on the exercise bike, and also performing the trimedyl test.
The doctor also collects data for anamnesis, measures the pulse and systolic pressure, listens to the heart's work with a phonendoscope.
About what treatment requires frequent and rare supraventricular extrasystole, read below.
If a patient with ECG supraventricular extrasystole has no complaints, then the treatment regimen is usually not drawn up. It is recommended to avoid provoking factors to further aggravate the situation and lead a healthy lifestyle. When a complaint occurs, the cardiologist or therapist calculates the number of sudden cuts to determine the type of disease according to the classification and chooses the treatment method for the patient. Do not require treatment only single systole.
It is interesting and in an accessible form about the treatment and prevention of extrasystole will tell the video below:
If the patient's condition is not dangerous, the doctor recommends taking the relaxants and adhering to some recommendations:
- normalize food by eliminating smoked, salty, sweet, etc. from the diet;
- get rid of bad habits, if it seems to be impossible, then their harmful influence should be reduced;
- learn how to quickly get out of psychoemotional stresses;
- exclude food intake in late, evening hours;
- observe the recommended number of hours allocated for sleep;
- more often take walks in the fresh air.
Drug administration is prescribed depending on the revealed pathologies. Independent extrasystole is treated by Kordaron, Anaprilin and their analogues under the supervision of a doctor.
Symptoms of extrasystole are eliminated in the treatment of concomitant disease. If the cause lies in osteochondrosis, the doctor prescribes means for muscle relaxation and vascular treatment( Mexidol, Mildronate).The recommendation on the admission of β-blockers( Egilok et al.) Is not ruled out.
To surgical intervention resorted to not reaching the therapeutic effect by a medicamentous method. The patient is assigned a catheter ablation or replacement of the pacemaker( sinus-atrial or atrioventricular node) by an artificial analogue.
Extrasystole is treated with infusion of herbs from a mixture of hawthorn flowers, hop cones and vegetative parts of heather, motherwort and bald loaf. Before use, the infusion is consulted with the doctor.
Prevention of the emergence of pathology is of a general nature: adherence to a healthy lifestyle and avoidance of provoking factors.
Untimely initiated treatment of severe disease results in:
- frequent tachycardia,
- occurrence of pathology in the atrial structure and
- development of cardiac failure of a chronic type.
Preventive and curative measures for elimination of extrasystole come to an end successfully. Prognosis for the disease in a timely treatment favorable .There were no lethal outcomes with this diagnosis.
The following video of Elena Malysheva contains even more useful information on the question of supraventricular and other types of extrasystoles: