In an adult human worms belonging to 3 main classes - round( nematodes), flukes( trematodes) and tape( cestodes) parasitize. Each of these classes exhibits a different sensitivity to anthelminthic drugs, which are designed for use in adults. They act on various links of metabolic processes in the body of an adult parasite. That is why, what is better from worms in a particular case, can only be determined by a doctor after a detailed examination. For the same reason, self-administration of anti-helminth drugs may be ineffective and will only lead to prolonged time. And this increases the likelihood of complications in adult patients.
The most common diseases in children and adults, which are caused by round worms, are enterobiasis and ascariasis. But there may be other, more rare - paragonimosis, intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis, filariasis and trichinosis. Symptoms of diseases are not specific. Therefore, their diagnosis is carried out by laboratory methods, if a person has complaints susp
ected of helminthiasis. In some cases, adults can independently detect pinworms crawling out of the anus. Coping with such conditions is helped by medication.
Medicine against round worms
Effective preparations against these worms( they are realized without a prescription) for an adult are:
According to statistics in practical medicine for treatment in adults, doctors prefer Mebendazol and Pirantel most often. But each of these preparations against worms acts differently. So, the first is attached to the microtubules helminths, disrupts the process of their assembly and blocks the entry of glucose to the parasite. As a result, conditions are created in which worms perish. The second drug causes depolarization( disruption of the ion channels) of the cell membrane, which results in a neuromuscular block( paralysis).The adult individual parasite loses the ability to move around and eat normally, so it also dies.
These two drugs have almost the same chemical properties. However, there are some features of the distribution of their active components in the body. Therefore, the best remedy for helminths will help to choose a doctor. So, the peculiarities of Mebendazole are:
- Poor solubility in water
- It is practically not absorbed from the intestine( the absorption capacity increases only if consumed simultaneously with fats), therefore it is effective against worms in an adult living in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract
- It is excreted with feces, so this is the best remedy that can be prescribed for kidney and / or liver deficiency.
- Good drug tolerance. Only a small number of adult patients may have diarrhea and abdominal pain
- Categorically can not be used during pregnancy.in a series of studies it was shown that it has toxic effects on the fetus( embryo) and is capable of causing mutations.
Pirantel also acts in the intestinal lumen of adults and children, which is due to its poor absorption during ingestion. It often causes the development of side effects, which, in addition to those indicated, may be manifested by nausea. With regard to pregnant, evidence-based randomized trials on the treatment of worms, this tool has not been carried out.
Tiabendazole is used for extraintestinal helminthiases. The high effectiveness of the drug against these worms in an adult is due to the high level of its absorption from the intestine. It enters the bloodstream, and then into the liver, is excreted by the kidneys. Therefore, it should be used with caution, if there are diseases of these organs, leading to their insufficiency. Patients must necessarily warn the doctor about the existing pathology. The specialist will prescribe a biochemical blood test, which allows to assess the functional state of the kidneys and liver.
In the case of a rare disease of river blindness( onchocerciasis), official medicine against these worms in adults recommends the use of Ivermectin. The drug acts on the ion channels of helminths, causing paralysis. This remedy is also effective against filariasis( Diethylcarbamazine can also be used for this purpose).However, treatment with Ivermectin may be accompanied by a masotti-like syndrome associated with the death of microfilariae. With this syndrome, the adult temperature rises, there is a headache, drowsiness, dizziness, joint pain and a decrease in pressure. Against these symptoms associated with the death of worms, will help cope with corticosteroids and antihistamines.
What is better from tapeworms to adults?
Tape worms have no mouth and digestive system, so they live in the intestine of an adult, where they have constant access to nutrients. These helminths cause echinococcosis, shinosis( bovine tapeworm), diphyllobothriasis and other diseases. Official medicine against these worms recommends the use of either Albendazole or Niclosamide. The latter is the best remedy for helminths of this class. It exerts its therapeutic effect by blocking mitochondria, in which the energy molecules of ATP are produced. And without them, worms can not exist. However, to achieve maximum effectiveness, a person should know two important rules:
- Before using Niclosamide, a laxative drug should be taken( which is best advised by a physician in this group).It cleanses the intestines from dead worms that have broken up into parts, and prevents the release of eggs, which can become a source of new infection. Laxative is recommended for both children and adults.
- You should not drink alcohol during treatment( this treatment for worms takes only 1 day).
Albendazole official medicine recommends use as the best remedy for echinococcus. To increase absorption of the drug in the intestine, it is combined with fatty foods. At short courses of therapy from worms in adults( up to 3 days), side effects are practically not observed. However, with prolonged treatment( for several months), it is capable of exerting a toxic effect on the liver and drastically reducing the number of leukocytes in the blood( due to their increased destruction).In case of parasitizing worms in the brain, their death can be accompanied by unpleasant symptoms for a person:
- Elevated temperature
- Mental disorders.
What can I do to alleviate this condition? It is enough to drink more fluids and take a febrifuge( usually a drug from the group of non-steroids for adults and paracetamol for children).After 1-2 days these signs usually pass.
What will help against fluke-flukes?
Worms from the flukes class can affect the liver, intestines, lungs and blood cells of an adult and a child. The diseases caused by them are characterized by a severe course and rapid development of the insufficiency of the organs involved in the pathological process. Therefore, you should not hesitate with treatment. And what is better and what is possible, will tell, of course, the doctor. Usually in these cases Praziquantel is appointed - a specific preparation from worms of this class, sold without a prescription. It causes parasite paralysis and its death. This drug is quickly absorbed and well distributed in the body. It is especially effective against worms that affect nerve tissue and gallbladder, becausewell penetrates into the cerebrospinal fluid and bile.
Disadvantage of praziquantel is the frequent development of side effects, but as a rule, they are not serious. In adult patients, the following may appear:
- General malaise
- Poor appetite
- Vomiting, etc.
These symptoms quickly and self-stop. It should be noted that if cystecercles( a special kind of worms) resulted in eye damage in adults or children, then Praziquantel should not be used for medical purposes. This is because the death of the parasite can damage the eyeball due to the massive formation of toxic substances. In this case, the best remedy for these helminths and the necessary method of treatment will be selected by an ophthalmologist in conjunction with an infectious disease specialist.
Against helminths in pregnant women
Most anti-worm drugs for an adult are contraindicated in pregnancy. But, what to do if the pregnant woman has worms? There is an exit. To begin with it is necessary to understand what kind of helminthiosis is available. Most often during pregnancy, pinworms or ascarids are found. In the first case, one can hope for self-healing, becausethe cycle of life of this parasite is only a few weeks. During this time, if the repeated infection with worms is eliminated, the initially infected individuals will die. To do this, it is enough to follow simple rules, namely:
- Always wash hands before eating and after contact with animals( especially for children, but adults should also remember)
- Wash hands after toilet
- Smooth your underwear and bedding
- Do not usegeneral towel
- Wash food before use, etc.
If repeated tests again revealed worms, then approved medication will help against them during pregnancy - this is Piperazine. He is prescribed for ascaridosis, which can not be cured on its own. Usually the duration of therapy does not exceed 3 days. Its effectiveness is controlled by the study of feces to identify eggs of worms. This test is administered to all pregnant women as a screening test. But, nevertheless, it is better to conduct it before the onset of pregnancy. This will reduce the risk to the fetus and will not lead to the need for taking pharmacological preparations.