Sigmoiditis is an isolated inflammatory process of the sigmoid colon, manifested as an independent disease, and along with other diseases.
Like a large number of other diseases, sigmoiditis has a peculiarity of acute or chronic course. In addition, there are species that differ in the characteristics of bowel damage:
- Catarrhal is the most mild form of the inflammatory process of the sigmoid colon, when lesions are observed only on the upper layer of the epithelium.
- Erosive is a continuation of a non-cured catarrhal disease, and has a characteristic of destruction of the epithelium in the formation of erosions.
- Ulcerous is manifested if for a long time there is irritative reaction of erosions on the intestinal surface, which later flows into the formation of ulcers.
- Perisigmoiditis is a severe form of the disease. Through the surface of the ulcers, the inflammation begins to penetrate into the deeper parts of the intestinal wall, thereby reducing its mobility, and adhesion processes
appear in the peritoneal cavity.
Symptoms of sigmoid inflammation
Because sigmoiditis has a large number of forms, the symptoms tend to vary greatly, however, there are three underlying manifestations that are characteristic of any type of disease:
- Pain localized to the left iliac region. Pain has an intense characteristic, often localization occurs in the leg or lower back. It is worth remembering that the sigmoid colon has a high mobility, so that the localization of pain becomes closer to the central line of the abdomen or higher to the diaphragm.
- The chair changes its frequency and characteristics. Mostly, diarrhea begins to appear, and constipation is observed more rarely. For sigmoiditis, it is characteristic to increase the number of urge to defecate, which is caused by an irritable reaction of the intestine. The fecal mass is predominantly a liquid state, has a sharp, unpleasant odor, blood, mucous and purulent impurities are possible.
- The general condition of the patient worsens. So, if the disease lasts for a long time, then the human body begins to dwindle. Such a condition consists in loss of body weight, decrease in working capacity and general well-being, as well as in various disorders of sleep.
Treatment of sigmoiditis
Treatment of sigmoiditis depends on the cause of the disease. To conduct treatment of the disease, which is caused by intestinal infections, antibacterial therapeutic measures are prescribed, which are covered with bacterial medicines to protect against the appearance of dysbiosis. In the case of chronic disease, antiseptics are prescribed.
To treat sigmoiditis, which is caused by a nonspecific ulcerative type of disease, anti-inflammatory drugs are used that are aimed at eliminating the underlying disease.
To combat the common intoxication processes in inflammation of the sigmoid colon, an infusion therapeutic measure with a solution of glucose, blood plasma and preparations containing iron is used. Also, with sigmoiditis, the use of bacterial preparations is recommended to normalize the intestinal microflora.
To conduct treatment of an ischemic type of disease, the same scheme is used as in the treatment of sigmoiditis, which was caused by a nonspecific type of disease. In some cases, surgery is performed on the plastic of the vessels that feed the intestinal cavity.
In addition, as with other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, compliance with diet No. 4 will be assigned, meaning: to exclude all spicy, fried, smoked foods, alcoholic beverages, cut fats, carbohydrates and salts in the diet, as well as the use of crushed foodsbefore the reception.
Treatment of sigmoiditis takes a long time, and mainly for complete recovery requires several therapeutic courses, the duration of which is 1-3 months. On the basis of the above, it can be concluded that when treating the disease, antispasmodic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, astringent and enveloping agents will be prescribed.
Prognosis and possible complications of sigmoiditis
If treatment is performed correctly, which is mainly provided with the possibility of a complete cure for the disease, however, it is worth repeating once again that the therapeutic course is very long and will be accompanied by a large number of restrictions in the use of food.
If there is no proper care, there is a risk of spreading inflammation to the adjacent intestinal segments, mainly the rectal cavity.
Also, if inflammation progresses, intestinal leak tightness is violated, which is a sign of the onset of peritonitis. Such a disease is an inflammation of the peritoneal cavity, which requires extensive surgery.
Causes of sigmoiditis
A large number of causes of inflammation of the sigmoid colon, as an independent disease, consist in its anatomical and physiological characteristics.
First of all, this is due to the fact that the main functionality of the disease according to the ICD code 10 K52.9 is the end of the formation of the stool, which have the ability to irritate the mucous membrane of the intestinal shell, due to which microdamages develop, and, therefore, the prerequisites for the appearance of inflammation.
In the second place, the sigmoid colon, rather than other departments, has a curved shape, thereby delaying the advancement of the contents. Thanks to this structural feature, the duration of the irritant reaction increases with the mucous columus, which increases the risk of inflammation.
Also the causes of sigmoiditis are:
- Intestinal infection. The bacteria that cause these infections can produce toxins that destroy cells, thereby causing erosion or ulceration. Because of the peculiarities of sigma, in the presence of this kind of damage, it has a greater vulnerability to inflammation.
- Dysbacteriosis. In addition, the intestinal microflora has a protective function. With dysbacteriosis, the microflora has a property to be broken, due to which aggressive bacteria begin to multiply, and, consequently, an inflammatory process develops.
- Diseases of a nonspecific ulcerative type. Such diseases begin to occur as a result of an allergic reaction, and have the ability to induce manifestations that are similar in case of an intestinal infection.
- Circulatory disorders. The most common cause is atherosclerosis. In this case, plaques begin to form, which reduce the amount of blood that is passed through, thereby creating interference in the nutrition of tissues and organs. In the cavity of the intestine under the influence of ischemia, the necrotic areas begin to appear, becoming the first centers of the inflammatory process with sigmoiditis.
- The effects of ionizing radiation are radiation sickness. Under the influence of radiation, some cellular structures begin to break down, resulting in the appearance of free radicals - a toxic type of compound that damage healthy organic cells.
Diagnosis of sigmoid inflammation
Diagnosis of sigmoiditis is performed only by a physician by a therapist, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist or surgeon, and in case of detection of the disease, ICD code 10 K52.9 will be delivered.
As the main task in determining the disease, differential diagnosis with other abdominal inflammations, for example, paraproctitis, ulcerative colitis, as well as infectious-type diseases, for example, dysentery, dysbiosis, is suggested.
For the diagnosis of sigmoiditis, the following survey results are used:
- Survey and examination of the patient. Palpation of the abdominal organs is performed. In carrying out such studies, the physician establishes the exact localization of inflammation and pain, which makes it possible to determine the specific intestinal area involved in the inflammatory process.
- General analysis of feces and blood. Diagnostic examination data provide an opportunity to accurately determine the severity and characteristics of pathology.
- Recto-manoscopy to differentiate sigmoiditis will be performed to directly examine the mucosa. Based on the results of the survey, it is possible to make a decision on determining the form of the disease and the area of the lesion, and also help in eliminating oncological neoplasms.
- Radiography will be performed to differentiate sigmoiditis with code MKB10 K52.9 with violations of intestinal patency.
- Women also undergo gynecological examination to exclude the corresponding pathologies, for example, endometriosis, tubal pregnancy and others, which are capable of giving a similar clinical picture.
After all the information is collected, due to the diagnostic for sigmoiditis, the doctor finally determines the inflammation of the sigmoid colon, and the appropriate diet and medications are prescribed.