Cancerous embryonic antigen was first discovered in 1965 by Phil Gold and Samuel Friedman in the colon in cancer.
Later it was also found in other localizations of malignant cells, for example, with their location in the ovaries and the mammary gland. For this reason, studies of the cancer marker on women are prescribed for women.
The value of the CEA oncomarker
It is a protein micronutrient that is released during the formation of the digestive tract of the fetus. The speed of growth of the intestine, esophagus and stomach depends on it.
After birth, there is a sharp blockage of cells. A small concentration of them can persist in adults, especially in the mucous membrane.
This is due to the fact that the main feature of the REA oncomarker is the ambiguity of the information. Indicators may also have false values - additional research is required for an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, the analysis of the results is done only by a doctor.
What does the CEA oncomarker show?
Glycoprotein is needed to determine the presence of cancer pathology, but its concentration also shows some non-oncological ailments.
The study is used to further confirm tumors in the stomach, lungs, lactation and pancreas, with metastases in the bones and liver.
If a person undergoes treatment, has undergone surgical intervention associated with the removal of the tumor, then the analysis is carried out regularly.
It allows to establish, how much productively appointed treatment.
Despite the fact that the CEA oncomarker is used to study cancer of female organs, it is often prescribed to men. In addition, the concentration can easily determine whether relapse after the therapy is possible or not.
Indications for the
study. Indications for the delivery of the analysis for the CEA oncomarker are in persons:
- belonging to the risk group - the analysis is submitted once a year,
- for suspected oncology,
- for localization of the formation,
- for studying the effect of the therapy,
- for diagnosisrelapses.
The risk group includes people with hereditary predisposition, working in hazardous production, having a precancerous nature.
The diagnostic measure detects C-cell carcinoma. This encapsulated formations with a diameter of up to 1 cm are characterized by a lack of significant growth.
Usually the diagnosis is relevant if there are the following symptoms:
- cough and shortness of breath,
- the presence of a tumor that a person can feel,
- lethargy and fatigue,
- increased sweating,
- appearance of moles,
- problems with gastrointestinal tract,
- bleeding of unexplained etiology.
How do I take a blood test?
Immunoenzymatic analysis is taken in laboratories at oncology dispensaries. The material for the study is stored in the freezer in a disposable plastic test tube.
Preparation for the study is not special, the only better thing to come on an empty stomach. For this reason, analysis is often taken in the morning.
To improve the reliability of the results, doctors recommend:
- 24 hours before the end of smoking and drinking,
- restrict physical activity,
- to avoid stress.
Usually the analysis is ready within 1-3 days. After determining the level of the cancer marker CEA( CEA), the doctor compares the results with normal parameters and adds them to the overall diagnostic picture.
As the technique sometimes shows false results, it is impossible to draw a conclusion from the blood only about whether a person has cancer or not.
The indicators of the CEA oncomarker differ from smokers and non-smokers( ng / ml)
| Gender || Smokers || Non-smoking |
| male || 0,83-9,0 || 0,14-6,5 |
| women || 0,83-9,0 || 0,14-6,5 |
It is believed that the rate for a non-smoker ison average, not more than 5ng / ml, while for non-smokers this figure is halved.
Sometimes a slight increase appears in pregnant women. This is due to the partial penetration of protein from the fetal organism into the body of the mother. Therefore, this is considered the norm. If the indicators are on the border, the doctor will appoint a second study.
Reasons for increasing
Elevated concentrations do not indicate that a person has cancer. The analysis is not highly sensitive, so it does not reveal the tumor in the first stages, but it increases with non-oncological diseases.
In the latter case, the frequent cause is:
- renal failure,
- liver cirrhosis,
- hepatitis and several others.
Sometimes the analysis does not give the right result, if a person smokes a lot, abuse alcohol or has a drug addiction. Therefore, in order to establish an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to retake it.
Thus, if the level of CEA is elevated, X-rays, MRI, CT, ultrasound and other tests are mandatory. To put oncologic diagnosis, this study alone is not enough.
Antigen can also appear due to the formation of benign tumors and cysts, in rare cases, their amount rises in ARVI and other infectious diseases.