Oncology is one of the most dangerous problems of mankind. Every year a huge number of people die from it. Modern diagnostics increases the chances of a person to recover.
To detect malignant cells in early stages, cancer markers are studied. When their concentration increases the norm, doctors begin to sound the alarm.
The concept of
This is an acidic glycoprotein, present in a small amount in any organism. It is responsible for blocking the enzyme proteinase.
This protein is in the appendages of the testicles, takes part in the formation of sperm, occurs in the respiratory organs, fallopian tubes, endometrium.
The WFDC group protein was first isolated from the distal region of the ovaries. It is necessary for growth, maturation of spermatozoa, for obtaining anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial action.
The synthesis of HE-4 is mediated by the WFDC2 gene. Its activation is possible when oncological cells appear in the ovary.
Because the cause of high mortality from such diseases is th
e late detection of the disease due to the absence of a system, the analysis reveals cancer, reduces the risk of death.
What does this oncomarker show?
HE4 is an oncomarker that is prescribed for screening diagnostics in the treatment of cancer.
Unlike CA 125, it is rarely excreted by normal cells. Its increase with inflammatory, benign gynecological diseases is practically not observed.
This protein is recognized as the most specific, accurate, which makes it possible to differentiate ovarian cancer from any other.
Specificity of HE4 is 95%, and sensitivity is 76%.
No analysis is performed to monitor, diagnose mucoid and germinogenic ovarian tumors. It is not done to all women to test blood for cancer.
The results obtained can not be interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of oncology without taking into account the clinical picture as a whole. If the results do not match, additional examinations are scheduled.
How to take the test correctly?
To determine the number of oncomarker, venous blood is taken. Several rules should be considered for preparation:
- Give blood no earlier than four hours before eating. Best 8 hours is nothing. At this time you are allowed to drink clean water.
- If possible, stop taking medicines for three days.
- Do not smoke, drink alcohol-containing drinks on the day of the procedure.
Sometimes research is assigned to children. In this case, before giving blood, be sure to drink boiled water for 30 minutes before the examination. On average, the portion should reach 150-200 ml.
Decoding of oncomarker results he 4
The results are ready on average in two days. Indications for the study are:
- Differential diagnosis of tumor processes in the appendages of the uterus,
- Control of treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer,
- Predicting the risk of disease in the presence of small pelvis neoplasms, during menopause.
The analysis is relevant for the appearance of pain in the pelvic region, menstrual irregularities, loss of appetite.
If the number of oncomarker is reduced, then there is nothing wrong with that. An important role for diagnostics is played by the increase in indicators.
An increase in indicators is possible not only with malignant tumors, but also with:
- liver diseases.kidney,
- chronic renal failure,
- fibroid of the uterus,
- ovarian cyst,
Normal in women
The norm differs depending on the menstrual cycle and the presence of menopause. In women younger than 40 years, the norm is normally up to 60 pmol / L, in postmenopause up to 140 pmol / l.
Depending on the age of the norm varies, so more accurate indicators should be checked with your doctor.
In a joint study of the HE-4 and CA-125 oncoprotein and the detection of the ROMA index, the risk before detection of epithelial cancer is low at rates up to 12.9% in premenopausal women and up to 24.7% in postmenopausal women.
In 1/3 of women, HE-4 is elevated, and CA-125 remains within normal limits. This indicates an early stage in the development of oncology. It is noted that the increase in HE-4 indicators is revealed three years before the detection of ovarian cancer.
Sometimes false-negative, false-positive results are obtained.
In the first case, the tumor does not produce cells or the level of the oncomarker is so small that its amount can not yet be determined. False positive results are found in inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.
If the outcome is favorable, the oncomarker assumes normal values. If the deviation is visible after the therapy, then there is a high probability of relapse. In this situation, the doctor changes the tactics of treatment.
In conclusion, we note that the concept of norm when deciphering the analysis is not absolute, therefore it has no clear boundaries. Since the values differ for different age groups, depend on some external factors, the transcript can be performed by a doctor.