Kidney stones in children: signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Urolithiasis is a chronic disease characterized by the formation of concrements in the organs of the urinary system. Urolithiasis or nephrolithiasis is often used as a synonym, however, nephrolithiasis is commonly called kidney formation. The age of development of nephrolithiasis is considered to be 20-50 years, but more often the diagnosis of PBC is put already in childhood.

Kidney stones in children

Modern statistical data indicate that renal stone disease is noticeably younger. In recent years, the number of cases of detection of the disease in children has increased several times. In some regions, the disease is more common than in others. Doctors associate this with drinking water, but not only it becomes the cause of kidney stone disease. At a young age, metabolic disturbances, congenital pathologies, improper diet affect the formation of stones.

Urates - are rare, only 10% of patients with PCB find this type of formation.

Struvites are stones consisting of ammonium phosphate. They a

re of an infectious nature and are more common in girls and women.

Xanthine stones - it is extremely rare to detect this type of stones, it occurs only in 2-3% of people, including children. The cause of the occurrence are genetic disorders and congenital predisposition.

Renal stone disease in children is more likely to develop at the age of 3 to 10 years, but there are cases when the disease was diagnosed in an infant. In childhood, the PCB is much heavier and is accompanied by a number of complications. In 98% of children diagnosed with nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis develops, with almost 50% occurring in severe form. At the age of 2 years, pyelonephritis in 80% of cases can be accompanied by a purulent process in the kidney.
On video of kidney stone disease in children:

Reasons for

At present, there are no precise reasons for the appearance of kidney stone disease in childhood.

To the risk factors for the development of PCB include:

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  • birth defects of the urinary system, leading to urinary stagnation and difficulty in removing it;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • infectious diseases of kidney and bladder;
  • improper power supply;
  • disruptions in metabolism.

Kidney stone disease is referred to as polyethological diseases.

The young age of the sick also plays a role, because as the immune system is not fully strengthened, the instability of metabolic processes, the weak protective function of barrier tissues, the lability of the endocrine and nervous system serve as a favorable factor for the development of the disease.

Symptoms of

Symptoms of kidney stones in children The disease in most cases manifests itself in children and adults alike.

For kidney stones, the following symptoms may indicate:

  • pain in the kidney and lumbar region;
  • frequent urge to urinate;
  • pain and burning during urination and immediately after;
  • intermittent urination in small portions;
  • pain in the lower abdomen and in the genital area;
  • presence of blood in the urine and a cloudy-yellow sediment;
  • fever( rarely).

Stones are formed, as a rule, in one kidney, but can strike both. The pain is localized depending on which kidney is affected. Sometimes pain gives to the lower parts of the body, so it can manifest in the coccyx, hips and genitals. In children, such manifestations of the disease are rare, so you can suspect the disease most often by the color of urine.

A child who knows how to speak, most likely, will be able to tell about painful feelings in one or another place, while very young children will report pain by their behavior. It is worth to see a doctor if the baby has become whiny, constantly touching his genitals, and the urine has changed its habitual color.

A particularly dangerous symptom is the blood in the urinary secretions. This means that the stone with its edges will injure the walls of the kidney or urinary tract. Together with blood secretions, renal colic may appear.


It is possible to diagnose kidney stones only after a number of medical procedures. For this purpose, the doctor prescribes: a general urinalysis;

  • biochemical blood test;
  • clinical blood test;
  • bacteriological culture of urine;
  • biochemical analysis of urine.
  • Indirect signs of kidney stones is the presence of crystals of salts in the urine.

    In the presence of renal colic, the presence of kidney stones is not difficult to determine. Spectral analysis is carried out to clarify the type of formations.

    Ultrasound, as well as intravenous and review urography are the leading methods of diagnosing the disease. Their joint use makes it possible to determine the type, size of the stones, and the extent to which the kidneys are disturbed.

    Methods of diagnosis of kidney stones.

    1. Ultrasound is an effective tool for diagnosing kidney stones, however, it is ineffective when a stone falls into the ureter.
    2. X-ray of the kidneys - allows you to determine the size and location of contrasting calculus in the kidney.
    3. X-ray with contrast is an effective way of detecting calcium from the stone, but is ineffective in concrements consisting of uric acid, phosphate, cystine.
    4. CT is a highly sensitive diagnostic method that allows you to determine the size and location of a stone of any kind.

    Treatment of nephrolithiasis

    Treatment of kidney stones in children After confirmation of the diagnosis, a treatment is prescribed, which can be conservative or surgical, depending on the type and size of the stones. It is important to remember that the treatment of children can only be carried out under the supervision of a nephrologist.

    If necessary, litholytic agents are prescribed:

    1. Kanefron is a drug based on herbal remedies that has an antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory effect. It is prescribed as a prophylactic and with the aim of reducing the pain syndrome in the movement of concrements.
    2. Cyston is a combined agent. It has a litholytic, diuretic, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory effect.
    3. Phytolysin is a soft preparation based on herbal ingredients. It has a bactericidal, litholytic, anti-inflammatory effect.
    4. Cystenal - promotes the dissolution of stones, has an antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory effect. Used as a preventive tool for the formation of stones.

    As a supplement to the main therapy, phyto-drugs can be prescribed:

    • hips;
    • dill;
    • sporish;
    • parsley;
    • burdock;
    • juniper.

    Decoctions from these herbs are taken for several months. They can not be used instead of the main course of treatment.

    In case of a complicated course of the disease, antibacterial and immunocorrective agents are prescribed:

    1. Immunal.
    2. Uro-Vacon.
    3. Lycopid.
    4. Immunophane.
    5. Levamisole.

    Drugs are prescribed by the attending physician based on the condition and age of the patient.

    It is recommended that a certain diet be observed for the baby.

    1. Exclude any fast food.
    2. Include in the diet only useful products.
    3. Increase the amount of water consumed.
    4. Use only natural products.
    5. Exclude products containing oxalic acid( nuts, chocolate, spinach, sorrel, wheat bran)
    6. The diet should contain fresh vegetables and fruits.

    If conservative treatment is not effective, resort to surgical methods: pyelolithomia or shock wave lithotripsy.

    Kidney stones can lead to serious complications, which is why it is unacceptable to engage in self-medication, especially if it concerns a child. At the slightest suspicion of nephrolithiasis, it is necessary to consult a nephrologist.

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