Glomerulonephritis is a renal pathology of immunoinflammatory origin when the lesion affects the glomerular apparatus. Pathology proceeds independently or develops against systemic pathological conditions like lupus or vasculitis, endocarditis, etc. Pathology often occurs with a variety of complications, so at the first signs of renal inflammation it is necessary to take therapeutic measures.
Complications of glomerulonephritis
The leading role in the development of pathology specialists assign to immune organic reactions to a variety of allergens and infections. As a result, about a couple of weeks after infection, antibodies that block infectious antigens are formed in the blood. As a result, many antibody-antigen complexes are formed, which are deposited in the kidney structures and provoke the onset of the inflammatory process. Most often, this is observed with untreated throat lesions like angina, tonsillitis, tracheitis, and also in autoimmune pathologies in children.
Glomerulonephritis often leads to dangerous damage to kidney functions, violates their filtration activity, which leads to the accumulation of toxins, waste products and other dangerous substances in the body. As a result, various complications develop, such as acute or chronic kidney failure, nephrotic syndrome or hypertension, eclampsia, etc.
After the chronicization of the pathological process, its active progression begins. Chronic glomerulonephritis is characterized by a special resistance to the effects of immunosuppressive drugs. As a result, a secondary wrinkling of the kidney is formed. Pathology is considered to be one of the most frequent renal diseases that lead to kidney failure in children of childhood and early disability of all patients, regardless of age.
If glomerulonephritis developed in an acute form and was characterized by an extremely rapid, turbulent course, then its complication, as a rule, is renal failure. The cause of its occurrence is a sharp decrease in renal function due to acute circulatory disturbance against the background of numerous clusters in the glomerular capillaries of immune complexes.
Insufficiency develops within a few hours or days, lasting more than a day.
The affected kidney is not physically able to function normally, but this complication can be avoided if it is responsive to treating glomerulonephritis, which, according to statistics, with the correct approach, in 70% of children and adults completely cured in about 9 months-a year.
The development of kidney failure is accompanied by characteristic manifestations:
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- Renal failure begins with such blurred manifestations as excessive fatigue, exhaustion and thirst;
- Skin covers dry and turn yellow;
- Patients lose appetite;
- From the patient's mouth, the smell of urine is clearly felt;
- Inhibition and drowsiness;
- Rapid breathing and tachycardia, myocardial rhythm disturbances;
- marked decrease in diuresis;
- In laboratory diagnosis, the blood shows up creatinine and urea;
- The patient is constantly in a state of impotence;
- Hallucinations or convulsions may occur.
In the course of the diagnosis, doctors compare the data obtained with the detection of glomerulonephritis and the latest results.
In the absence of detection, the patient is necessarily hospitalized in the clinic, and it is extremely important to start treatment as early as possible. If the patient is in a state of shock, then the principles of shock therapy are used, with strong intoxication, the body is purged from toxic substances and poured in with antidotes. In severe cases, hemodialysis is prescribed.
If the patient has applied for the help of specialists in due time, with adequate therapy renal functions are restored and the consequences of the disease do not occur. But the final restoration of the body will take at least 6-24 months.
On the video about the causes, symptoms and treatment of kidney failure:
A particular complication of acute glomerulonephritis is renal eclampsia. Pathology is also called angiospastic encephalopathy, in fact it is a vascular cerebral spasm or cerebral edema. Acnephrotic eclampsia develops as a result of a sharp rise in blood pressure, an attack similar to epilepsy, and its duration also takes only a few minutes. A whole chain of seizures may arise, and if they are not timely dared, then there will be a cerebral hemorrhage.
Eclampsia on the background of glomerulonephritis is characterized by a rather vivid clinical picture:
- As already described, a characteristic manifestation of angiospastic encephalopathy are seizures that change several times. After the end of a series of attacks, the patient remains in a coma or stunned state, but over time his state of health improves. In some cases, the consequence of such attacks are speech disorders and serious visual disturbances.
- Such a state is simply enough to be confused with epileptic seizures, so it is important to establish the correct diagnosis. Differences in eclampsia from epilepsy are the presence of edema and other characteristic manifestations of renal pathology, and convulsive attacks are observed quite often.
- Similar convulsions occur with uremic coma, but only its formation takes quite a long time, and does not occur suddenly, as with eclampsia. And the convulsive contractions themselves are more like fibrillar jerking.
To date, physicians are aware of a variety of techniques to relieve eclampsia attacks. For example, an effective method is puncture suboccipital or spinal with the release of a small amount of spinal matter. Such manipulations will immediately lead to an end to the attack, intracranial and blood pressure is normalized, the patient regains consciousness. Also, doctors to stop the attack use the method of bloodletting and intravenous infusion of magnesia, which reduces brain edema and lowers the pressure.
Most complications of glomerulonephritis occur with late diagnosis of a pathological inflammatory process in the kidneys, with improperly selected therapy, or with an untreated disease. To the lethal outcome complications of glomerulonephritis are given only in 0.4% of cases. In rare cases, the diffuse type of glomerulonephritis acquires a malignant course, and the patient dies after months. To avoid this, it is necessary to strictly follow medical appointments, to apply for professional medical help in time and to finish the disease to the end. The most important in the final cure for glomerulonephritis is post-pathological rehabilitation, as it may take about two years for the final recovery after the illness.