Otitis is commonly referred to as inflammatory ear damage. Often this violation provokes hearing loss and other negative consequences. To avoid such problems, it is very important at the first signs of pathology to see a doctor. The specialist will select adequate therapy after a thorough diagnosis.
Otitis classification of the ICD 10
Otitis is an ENT pathology of the auditory organ, which is characterized by an inflammatory lesion of a specific ear region. Causes of ailment can be different. These include mechanical damage, lack of adequate hygiene, viral and catarrhal diseases.
According to the ICD-10 classification, such categories of this violation are distinguished: H60-H95 "Diseases of the ear and mastoid process".In turn, they are divided into a number of groups:
- H60-H62 - diseases of the external ear;
- H65-N75 - diseases of the middle ear and mastoid process;
- H83 - diseases of the inner ear.
This pathology is accompanied by a variety of manifesta
- Pain syndrome. The nature of discomfort depends on the causes of the ailment and the location of the inflammation. Sometimes the pain affects only the auricle. Usually the discomfort is pronounced and intensified at night.
- Temperature increase. Sometimes this figure is 38-39 degrees.
- General condition worsening. Otitis can provoke the appearance of weakness, malaise, increased drowsiness. The person often worsens appetite or there is an ache in a body.
- Deterioration of hearing. This symptom may affect one ear or both.
- Noise in the ears. It can decrease, and then grow again.
- Purulent discharge or the appearance of exudate. These symptoms do not always appear. When they occur, a person notices fluid in the auricle.
- Dizziness or coordination problems. These manifestations occur with the development of internal otitis, which provokes a lesion of the bone labyrinth.
How the ear of a person is arranged
Depending on the location of the abnormal process, different types of otitis are distinguished, each of which is characterized by specific symptoms.
This form of ailment usually develops due to violation of hygiene rules. It can be provoked by attempts to purify the auricle with unsuitable objects.
As a consequence, the infection penetrates into the ear, which leads to the development of otitis of fungal or bacterial etiology. To prevent this from happening, the cleansing of the ears can be carried out exclusively with cotton buds.
External otitis provokes the appearance of pain while sipping the ear. If the inflammatory process is purulent, there is a risk of purulent discharge with an unpleasant odor. Bullous otitis can cause bleeding, associated with the opening of blisters.
This form of otitis is the result of infection in the middle ear. The disease can provoke viral infections, tonsillitis, measles. The average otitis can have different types:
- Catarrhal otitis is usually considered the initial stage of the appearance of inflammation. It is characterized by the development of the stuffiness of the affected ear, deterioration of hearing, the emergence of noise.
- Exudative otitis is accompanied by the formation of a viscous inflammatory secretion. If a large amount of this substance accumulates, there is a risk of pain. However, more often than not, people face weight and pressure. In addition to the stuffiness of the ears, there are noises. The patient has a sensation of splashing fluid, increasing hearing impairment.
- Purulent otitis is considered the most complicated form of the disease. It is accompanied by intense pain, congestion, the appearance of noise. Sometimes there are purulent discharge. This disease is accompanied by an increase in temperature. The general condition of a person is getting worse.
This form of the disease occurs if the medial otitis is not treated in time. In this case, the infection penetrates into the depth of the ear, which provokes the development of the labyrinthite.
In this case, the lesion of the vestibular apparatus is observed. In addition to hearing impairment and the appearance of noise, there is a risk of imbalance, the appearance of nausea, dizziness, and vomiting.
Otitis can be acute and chronic. Symptoms of these diseases are similar, but their intensity differs significantly.
- The main sign of acute otitis is a marked pain in the ear. It can be jerking or shooting. Usually discomfort grows in the evenings.
- Another symptom of the disease is autophony, which is characterized by the appearance of constant noise in the ear.
- A person may have a slightly worse hearing.
- For acute otitis characterized by an increase in temperature and deterioration. If the anomaly is purulent, the symptoms become more intense.
- With this violation, dizziness often occurs.
- In addition, purulent otitis is accompanied by the accumulation of purulent contents, which can break through the membrane and pour out.
This form of otitis has similar symptoms, but they are much less pronounced. Usually there are painful sensations and a stronger hearing loss. There is also a symptom of autophony and a feeling of stuffiness in the ears.
Diagnostic and research methods
To begin with, the otolaryngologist collects an anamnesis and studies the patient's complaints. Then you can start examining the external auditory canal.
For this purpose, a reflector with backlight and other special devices are used.
In addition, the specialist performs an examination of the oral cavity and nasopharynx. If necessary, radiography of the sinuses of the nose and forehead can be performed.
The common blood test is of diagnostic value. With otitis in it you can see such symptoms of inflammation as an increase in the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation, an increase in the volume of leukocytes.
To check the hearing, audiometry is performed. Assessment of bone conduction is carried out using a tuning fork.
When pus is discharged, a substance is taken for bacteriological analysis. This will help assess the sensitivity of the causative agent of the disease to antibacterial drugs.
To exclude tumor damage to the ear or development of complications, computed tomography can be performed.
Methods of treating pathology should be determined by a physician. This is done taking into account the variety and extent of the disease.
In the first place, treatment should be aimed at combating the causative agent of the disease. For this purpose, antibacterial therapy is prescribed. Most often doctors prescribe digitan, solutab, fleumoclave.
For local therapy, drops with antiseptic properties are used. In addition, they have anesthetic components that help cope with the pain. The most effective remedies include otinum, otypax, and sfradex.
In addition to ear drops, ENT doctors often prescribe vasoconstrictive drugs for the nose - naphthyzine, otrivin, nazole. These drugs contribute to the elimination of swelling of the mucosa of the Eustachian tube. This makes it possible to minimize the load on the membrane.
To reduce edema of the mucosa, the use of antihistamines is indicated. These include drugs such as loratadine, suprastin, diazolin.
If the pathology is accompanied by an increase in temperature, the use of antipyretic drugs is indicated. They also help reduce pain syndrome. The most effective and harmless drug that is prescribed for children and adults is paracetamol.
Reasons for otitis, treatment and prevention - doctor's advice in our video:
Local treatment for otitis is often performed with warming compresses. Good results are achieved by means of physiotherapy. Doctors usually designate the use of UHF and solux currents.
To reduce pain in the patient's ear, 5% drops of carbolic acid are used. However, when pus excreta is used, it is forbidden to use them.
When accumulation of a large amount of exudate in the ears shows the conduct of myringotomy. This procedure consists in the artificial penetration of the ear cavity. This method is used only after anesthesia.
When otitis is useful to use warming turuns, which are moistened in boric alcohol or ordinary vodka. Also, an effective compress is made from alcohol.
To do this, in the gauze is to make a cut, moisten it in warm alcohol and attach it to your ear. It is important to consider that this method can only be used for the doctor's prescription.
Another effective tool for otitis are ear candles. They are small tubules of cotton, impregnated with wax. On sale it is possible to find fitosveschi, containing useful components - cinnamon oil, lavender, sage, etc.
Otitis is considered a serious enough disorder, which can lead to negative consequences and lead to severe hearing loss.
To avoid this, it is recommended to contact the otolaryngologist on time, who will choose effective therapy depending on the type of pathology.