Otitis media of the middle ear in children: causes of inflammation, symptoms and treatment

1 Etiology of

The most common causes of otitis media development in the middle ear in children are:

  • ARVI( acute respiratory viral infection);
  • measles;
  • diphtheria;Scarlet fever
  • ;
  • adenoids;
  • rhinitis;
  • sinusitis;
  • angina;
  • tonsillitis;
  • atresia of the hoan;
  • ear trauma;
  • foreign objects in the middle ear area.

Average otitis may occur in children in the first months of life. It can provoke infections transmitted from the mother of a patient with pyelonephritis, mastitis, endometritis and other diseases.

Picture 1

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In young children, the immune system, premature birth, hypotrophy, diathesis of the exudative species, allergic reactions, pathology of the bronchopulmonary system and rickets contribute to the emergence and development o

f this disease. If there are anatomical abnormalities in the ear structure, this can also cause otitis media development.

2 Accepted classification

The otitis media of the middle ear doctors are divided into three forms.

  1. Sharp. It is provoked by viral infections or bacteria. Accompanying the disease formation of purulent masses.
  2. Exudative. It is formed due to clogging of the auditory type tube.
  3. Chronic. It is formed from an acute stage and lasts a long time. In this case, a large number of purulent masses is formed and the hearing decreases. This is due to multiple scars on the tympanic membrane.

Picture 2

The acute form is most severe. In most cases, she has to resort to surgery.

3 Characteristics of

In order to determine the disease yourself, you need to know how to recognize the otitis in a child, what are the main symptoms accompanying this ailment:

  • increases the body temperature to 38.5 - 40 degrees;
  • the child becomes restless;
  • the children begin to rub, press the patient's ear with his hand or to the pillow;
  • loss or loss of appetite;
  • hearing decreases;
  • may be depressed.

In children in the first months of life, the symptom of otitis may be dilution of stool, regurgitation, or vomiting.

In infants, otitis can be identified by pressing your fingers on the tragus. If he is in this moment to worry the pain, then he will cry, and the pupils will be of different sizes.

After perforation of the membrane, the pain subsides, the temperature decreases and intoxication decreases, but hearing loss remains. During this period, the main sign of the disease is the purulent liquid that drips from the ear( otorrhoea).After this, all the preceding symptoms disappear or decrease.

Picture 3

After detection of otitis symptoms, you should consult a doctor for diagnosis.

4 Diagnostic methods

It is only the doctor who can diagnose the diagnosis correctly. At the initial reception the child gets to the pediatrician who directs him to the otolaryngologist. At the stage of finding out the disease, it is necessary to act quickly and not to delay with the diagnosis.

Picture 4

The otolaryngologist performs otoscopy. It allows you to consider the tympanic membrane and detect thickening, hyperemia, protrusion, perforation, or separation of purulent masses on it.

If a perforation is detected, the doctor takes exudate for a bacteriological study.

Another method of examination is radiography. With its help, it is possible to detect a decrease in pneumatization in the ear cavity. If necessary, the doctor appoints CT( computer tomography) of the temporal areas.

In children with recurrent otitis media, audiometry and acoustic impedance measurements are performed. These tests allow you to check the functions of the hearing aid. After that, check the patency of the auditory tube.

Picture 5

5 Directions of therapy

In treating otitis media of the middle ear in children, doctors are limited to a conservative method.

It includes:

  • thorough, regular ear toilet;
  • introduction of cotton tubers( turund) moistened with alcohol solution;
  • local infrared irradiation.

If treatment does not help for 3 days, then the furuncle of the auditory canal should be opened.

Active osmotic preparations( phenazole with Ledocaine) and ear drops of antibacterial form with rifampicin, ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin are prescribed from the preparations. For the removal and reduction of the inflammatory process, NSAIDs( non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are used. To stop allergic manifestations used antihistamines in the form of drops or solution. If the airway is blocked, you must hold a daily toilet of the nose and apply drops to the nose of the vasoconstrictor. Antimicrobial therapy of a local type is carried out by Penicillins, Fluoroquinolones, Macrolides or Cephalosporins. Pain can be relieved by pain medication.


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Figure 6

If the child has a non-perforative purulent form of the disease, then a paracentesis of the tympanic membrane is performed. This will ensure the outflow of purulent masses from the ear tube. After this procedure, it is necessary to purify the ear with medicines.

With the onset of improvement, children are blown through the ear tubes through the Politzer and make a pneumomassage of the tympanic membrane. During this period they are prescribed physiotherapeutic procedures( UFO, UHF, UHF, electrophoresis, ultrasound or laser therapy).

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With otitis exudative form, you may need tympanopuncture, myringotomy, shunting of the tympanic membrane or tamponotomy revision.

In cases where conservative methods do not produce the desired result, physicians perform tympanoplasty using prosthetic devices to repair a broken auditory bone.

Figure 7

6 Complications of

Complications of otitis media of the middle ear can develop with incorrect or untimely treatment, they occur less often in severe disease. During this period, inflammation in the labyrinth( inner ear trails) may develop, with the child feeling dizzy, tinnitus, loss of balance, nausea and vomiting, and a decrease or total loss of hearing.

Complications also include zygomatitis, facial paralysis and mastoiditis. If the infection deepens into the skull, then encephalitis, meningitis, sepsis and brain abscess can occur.

In chronic otitis media, a child of 2 to 3 years old may develop a hearing loss of a persistent nature that arises from the scar on the tympanic membrane and the perceiving sound apparatus. In young children, this can affect the formation of speech and intellectual development.

Picture 8

7 What is forbidden in otitis media?

This disease is very serious and it should be treated only under the supervision of a doctor. For his therapy, it is forbidden to choose drugs independently and use traditional medicine. This in most cases leads to a chronic form of the disease due to ineffective therapy.

Do not do the following:

  • warm up a sore ear;
  • do compresses to reduce high body temperature;
  • to remove pus with a cotton swab;
  • is not allowed for a child to blow his nose at the same time from 2 nostrils;
  • bury your ears with alcohol solutions and tinctures;
  • independently break through purulent formations.

Picture 9

These rules will allow you to not do harm to health and timely cope with the disease without complications.

8 Preventive measures

To prevent otitis media in the middle ear in children, several rules should be followed:

  • it is necessary to increase the resistance of the organism;
  • exclude injuries to the ear by foreign objects;
  • should teach the child the correct technique of blowing;
  • timely and correctly treat all associated diseases;
  • visit a doctor regularly.

These simple rules will help to prevent your child from such a disease as otitis media. The disease is always easier to prevent than to cure.

This disease is very dangerous, so self-medication is dangerous to health. At the first symptoms or complaints of the child it is necessary to show the child's doctor and to observe all the recommendations for treatment.

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