1 Diseases of inflammatory nature
In ophthalmology it is common to divide inflammatory diseases of the sclera into 2 groups:
- Superficial. These include episclerites, which, in turn, have 2 forms.
- Deep. This group includes sclerites, which are divided into several species.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the
- Causes of the appearance of the eye's episcleritis
- What is the conjunctival bag
- Signs and treatment of the conjunctival eye cyst
- Contemporary preparations from Pressure!
In most cases, these ailments develop against the background of primary diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis, Bechterew's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc. Often these diseases manifest themselves as scleritis, which allows them to be diagnosed in time.
Another cause of inflammation of the sclera is various infections, for example, in tuberculosis, which spread from the vessels to the white shell of the eye. But the infectious nature o
f sclerites and episclerites are extremely rare.
The disease may develop in case of metabolic disorders in the body, for example, against the background of gout.
If you start a timely treatment, the inflammation of the envelope does not pose a great danger. But if you ignore the ailment, the inflammatory process will amaze not only the sclera, but also the structure of the entire eye.
2 Classification of sclerites
Scleritis is characterized by an inflammatory compaction in the deep layers of scleral tissue. Most often, the disease first affects one eye, and then another. This ailment is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- pain in the eye, which increases if a person looks away, while moving the eyeball;
- sensation of a foreign object.
There are several varieties of this disease:
- Front sclerite. Characterized usually by the damage of both eyes. It develops slowly, the symptoms are moderately acute. It is accompanied by a swelling and reddening of the area between the equator and the limb of the eye, a sharp pain when pressed. Can go to:
- annular scleritis, that is, the spread of inflammation to the pericorneal zone;
- gelatinous sclerokeratitis, which affects the cornea, and in the limb zone, red-brown infiltration is noted.
- If the disease is not treated, its course is exacerbated and leads to consequences, for example: pupillary dilation, corneal opacity, secondary glaucoma, decreased vision.
- Rear sclerite. With this variety, inflammation is noted in the posterior part of the membrane. It is accompanied by limitation of mobility and painful sensations during eye movement, swelling of the conjunctiva and eyelids( chemosis), insignificant exophthalmos. The sclera is thinner, which is clearly visible on the tomography.
- Purulent scleritis. This form is also called an abscess of the sclera. It is the heaviest. It begins acutely. The main signs are lacrimation, photophobia, soreness. The ophthalmologist notes the swelling of the eyelids, the swelling near the limb, which after a while turns into a purulent infiltrate, forms a painful abscess. The foul form is dangerous because it does not exclude complications, such as perforation of the sclera, loss of vision until its complete loss.
3 Characteristics of episclerites
Episleritis is characterized by damage to the surface layers of the sclera.
Accompany it with such symptoms:
- reddening of the sclera, usually the area near the cornea;
- swelling of the inflammation focus;
- mildly painful, which is intensified when pressed.
Often foci of inflammation have a cyanotic-red hue and an uneven surface that shines through the conjunctiva.
According to the nature of the flow, there are 2 forms of episcleritis:
- Nodal. At the limbus appear hyperemic rounded nodules. Differs duration of flow.
- Migratory. Characterized by the appearance of limbus flat hyperemic lesions, which affect one or the other eye.
With episcleritis, patients feel good. Complications of the disease, as a rule, does not. The visual acuity is not disturbed.
The doctor prescribes a treatment regimen only after examination of the patient and diagnosis. It is important to identify the primary disease, against which the problem arose. Treatment begins with the elimination or removal of symptoms of a systemic disease. The scheme for eliminating sclerites and episclerites directly is usually:
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- Local Therapy. Assign eye drops with corticosteroids, for example Dexapos. Subconjunctival injections are also effective.
- Anti-inflammatory therapy. It is always used in conjunction with the local hormonal.
- Antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics, which regulate the function of the immune system, are necessarily indicated.
- Combined therapy. An ophthalmologist may prescribe a combination of drugs, for example, Diclo-F, Uniklofen.
If the disease accompanies the nevus, which is often, then it is eliminated either with the help of ointments, or by resection.
In addition to drug therapy, physiotherapy procedures are also shown: UHF, electrophoresis, ultrasound. They are prescribed after relief of inflammation.
4 Treatment of various forms of the disease
Depending on which primary disease was the trigger for the development of the process, the doctor can appoint:
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Read more & gt; & gt;Preparations of a group of salicylates, Reopyrin, Butadion. Are indicated when scleritis against rheumatism.
- Antibacterial drugs, sulfonamides. Appointed when the disease develops against the background of the infectious process.
- Desensitizing drugs, specific treatment, for example, Saluside, Ftivazid, etc. Are indicated for inflammation against tuberculosis and allergies.
If the purulent form of scleritis develops, hospitalization of the patient with further opening of the abscess and drainage of its cavity is necessary.