Acute and chronic nephritis( inflammation of the kidneys): types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Jade can have different causes, but in each case the disease is very serious and requires urgent treatment. The article tells about the causes and symptoms, types of pathology and the principles of therapy.

Nephritis of the kidneys

The concept of "nephritis" includes a group of kidney diseases of an inflammatory nature of a diverse genesis, differing clinic and ongoing changes. All pathologies are divided into primary( independent) and secondary( develop against the background of another disease).

During jade, local or widespread( diffuse) destructive and inflammatory processes are observed that cover the tissue of the kidneys( parenchyma), tubules or renal glomeruli. As a rule, the disease proceeds on both kidneys. It is much more common in women.

Causes and Forms of

Causes and forms of kidney nephritis Primary inflammation of the kidneys is directly related to the pathology of the organ. It occurs as a hereditary form and glomerulitis( glomerulonephritis), which is a diffuse bilateral inflammation of the kidneys wit

h vascular lesions. Hereditary form occurs already in infancy and proceeds with very severe symptoms.

Secondary nephritis can develop with:

  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • SCR;
  • Rheumatism;
  • Bacterial endocarditis;
  • Tumors( lymphoma, lymphogranulomatosis);
  • Vaskulitah;
  • Alcohol poisoning, heavy metals;
  • Cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Hepatitis B;
  • Severe anemia;
  • Schistosomiasis;
  • Amyloidosis;
  • of myeloma;
  • Leukemia.

In the area of ​​the disease, the disease is left-sided, right-sided, bilateral. But this is not the whole list of what jades are.

By the type of jade there are such types:

  • Acute;
  • Chronic.

The causes of acute pathology are most often caused by an infectious disease that gives the inflammatory process in the kidneys as a complication. In most cases in children, adults such an infection becomes streptococcal, which is the causative agent of scarlet fever and sore throats.

Acute nephritis or exacerbation of a chronic illness often occurs after severe hypothermia, when local immunity falls off violently, blood supply to organs and processes of their nutrition and waste disposal are disturbed. Also, the kidney tissue can become inflamed after getting the infection from the bladder( most often it's bacteria - Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus).Chronic inflammation of the kidneys develops with insufficient treatment of the acute form of the disease.

In the primary area of ​​kidney damage, these types of nephritis are distinguished:

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  1. Glomerulonephritis( glazed) - covers the renal glomeruli.
  2. Pyelonephritis - an inflammatory process is noted in the parenchyma tissue and in the kidneys.
  3. Interstitial - tubules and interstitial tissue are affected.

Depending on the cause of the occurrence, it is especially necessary to note the rare types of nephritis:

  1. Radial - occurs under the influence of radiation, leads to dystrophy or complete atrophy of the renal tubules.
  2. Shunt - causes the formation of antibodies to the glomerulus of the kidneys in a number of autoimmune pathologies.
  3. Idiopathic is a disease of an unknown genesis.

On the video about the forms, causes and treatment of kidney nephritis:

Symptoms of the disease

The clinical picture of pathology will strongly depend on its type and shape. Acute infectious pyelonephritis, as a rule, occurs in children and people under 35 years, is observed within a few days after hypothermia or during another infectious disease.

Symptoms of nephritis are as follows:

  • rise in temperature;
  • back pain;
  • weakness, loss of efficiency;
  • dry mouth;
  • thirst;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • bloating;
  • violation of the act of urination;
  • pain when urinating, blood in urine;
  • in the absence of emergency measures - increased pressure, swelling.

Puffiness is characteristic of all types of diseases that have not been treated urgently. Initially there is swelling of the face, eyelids, after it spreads to the legs and whole body. The danger of edema lies in their rapid progression, localization in the peritoneum or lungs, the development of heart failure. However, acute infectious pyelonephritis most often ends in complete recovery, but sometimes, with unfavorable course and inadequate therapy, becomes chronic.

The chronic form leads to regular exacerbations, proceeds for a long time, and even during remissions a person can feel weakness, quickly becomes tired, he has no appetite, subfebrile temperature is present. Over time, there is death of renal glomeruli, a decrease in the size of the kidneys, the development of chronic renal failure.

In secondary types of pathology and, especially, with glomerulonephritis, renal glomeruli are affected, and the symptoms are as follows:

  • Pale skin;
  • Severe edema;
  • The appearance of protein in the urine;
  • Increased blood pressure;
  • Reduction of urine output, sometimes anuria.

With high blood pressure, a person may experience eclampsia with severe headaches, seizures, vomiting, loss of consciousness, involuntary discharge of urine and feces. Treatment should be started as early as possible and because of the risk of edema and fluid accumulation in the pericardium, pleural cavity, peritoneum and even in the brain.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of kidney nephritis For the diagnosis, the doctor must collect a thorough medical history( the presence of autoimmune diseases, hypothermia, streptococcal infection in the recent past, etc.), as well as interview the patient about the sensations, nature and timing of the onset of pain.

Blood tests, urine tests are mandatory.

The general analysis of urine, research on Nechiporenko, Zimnitsky can reflect such violations:

  1. Oligouria - clouding of urine, change in its specific gravity, color( for example, urine acquires the color of meat slops).
  2. Hematuria, macrohematuria - the appearance of erythrocytes in the urine.
  3. Proteinuria - excretion of protein in the urine.
  4. Daily diuresis - a sharp decrease in the volume of excreted urine.

A number of other studies have been performed to confirm the diagnosis and differentiation between certain types of disease:

  • Functional tests for assessment of glomerular filtration.
  • Bacteria urine, blood.
  • Cystoscopy.
  • Excretory urography.
  • Kidney ultrasound or radiography, MRI( according to indications).A biopsy of the kidney.

Treatment of

An important condition for acute pathology or exacerbation of its chronic form is strict bed rest. Usually, the disease is treated in a hospital, and in the first 2 days the patient is shown complete starvation and a decrease in the amount of fluid to 500 ml / day. With glomerulonephritis the patient will have to be in a horizontal position up to 7 days from the beginning of the pathology development. For any type of disease, it is important to regularly take the patient's tests to assess the dynamics of the kidneys and to prevent renal failure. The analysis will also largely depend on how to treat the inflammation.

Medication Therapy

Drug therapy for nephritis of the kidneys Acute forms of pathology require intravenous infusion of glucose, vitamin C, drugs to lower blood pressure.

Also, depending on the type of disease and its cause, such drugs can be prescribed:

  • antibiotics;
  • diuretics;
  • pain relievers;
  • vitamins and calcium preparations;
  • anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • antiseptics;
  • glucocorticosteroids;
  • cytotoxic; 4
  • cardiac drugs.

Antibiotics are the most important component of therapy in the presence of infection. They are selected based on the results of tests on the sensitivity of microbes to drugs. More often are recommended cephalosporins( Cefotaxime, Suprax) or penicillins( Amoxicillin, Ampicillin).The duration of antibiotic treatment in injections is usually 5-10 days, then the patient is transferred to a tablet taking drugs for a total of up to 3 weeks.

In the treatment of chronic pathology, it is important to conduct course treatment with immunomodulators, interferons, anti-inflammatory drugs, resorptive agents, drugs to normalize blood circulation. Immunomodulating therapy is carried out only after a complete stagnation of symptoms.

Other therapies

Kidney nephritis therapy If a person's condition is severe, the effect of conservative drugs is weak, plasmapheresis and hemosorption( extracorporeal methods for purifying blood from toxins and decay products of tissues) are introduced into the therapy program. Such therapy will help the body to adequately perceive the drugs administered. Hemodialysis or removal( transplantation) of the kidney is planned only with severe renal failure.

Treatment with folk remedies

As the patient recovers, long-term use of phytopreparations with anti-inflammatory action, broths and morses with cranberries, cranberries is recommended. These funds are subsidiary and can not completely cope with the problem can not. Especially useful are they for chronic inflammation of the kidneys to prevent new exacerbations. Patients who undergone nephritis are also shown a sanatorium treatment.

Diet for the patient

After the first "hungry" days, the patient is recommended "sugar days", and then the menu is introduced carbohydrates and vegetable protein. Salt during the acute phase is strictly limited( in the first week is shown a salt-free diet).Only after a week with jade in the diet can appear milk, potatoes and salt( less than 3 g / day).

Prevention of the disease

For prevention is important:

  • In time to treat all infections in the body.
  • Avoid cystitis, and also immediately start antibiotic therapy.
  • Do not overcool.
  • Control any chronic illness.
  • Prevent immunosuppression, harden.
  • Avoid stress.
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