In recent years, the number of people affected by oncology in our country has increased. This is especially true in regions with a developed industrial sector.
Women have a large number of cancer pathologies in the organs of reproduction, digestion and respiratory system. Identifying the disease is not always easy with the help of instrumental methods, so if it is suspected, oncologists are sent to donate blood to oncomarkers.
These are substances produced by organs in response to the invasion of cancers.
Protein substances are produced not only by diseased tissues, but also by some healthy ones. Therefore, often assigned to the delivery of several tests.
In medicine, more than 200 types of markers are known, but only twenty are used to make a diagnosis. Today, the rule applies: the earlier the increased levels of protein compounds are revealed, the better the treatment will be.
Feature of oncomarkers is that they are present in a small amount in the blood of almost everyon
Doctors say that sometimes their number increases in benign formations. If the indicators are very high, then, most likely, we are talking about the development of metastases.
Timely research allows:
- to identify risk groups,
- indicate the location where malignant cells are located,
- to evaluate the results of treatment,
- to monitor the impact.
What kind of markers do you need to take to women?
The body of women produces hormones, the level of which increases with the development of cancer.
Usually, the doctor, when suspected, sends blood for the detection of oncomarkers:
- SCC - reveals the carcinoma of the cervix, of the hearing and nasopharynx.
- CA 125 - increases with formation in the ovaries.
- CA 15-3 - manifests itself in breast cancer, endometrium.
- CA 72-4 - reveals the oncology of the digestive system, respiration, ovary.
Some antigens can detect cancer, but do not determine its location. In these situations, an additional study is given by X-ray, ultrasound. These include: REA, CA 19-9, HCG, AFP.
The latter rises when suspected of fetal developmental defects. Its elevated indices indicate Down's syndrome, problems associated with the formation of the abdominal wall or neural tube.
How to properly take a blood test for oncomarkers?
The collection of blood from women comes from a vein. To increase the reliability of the results obtained, it is recommended to perform an examination on an empty stomach, in a sitting or lying position.
To monitor the course of the disease, blood is given often, depending on the affected organ, the prescribed treatment every 10 days or three months. Correctly prescribed treatment shows a decrease in antigen concentration in the blood.
If surgical treatment has been performed, the blood is often given to determine whether chemotherapy or radiotherapy is necessary. If the level of markers is kept low, we can say that the cancer cells are removed in full.
Indicators may vary slightly, exceed the limits of the norm. Therefore, doctors talk about three types of results: norm, borderline condition and pathology.
The following values are considered normal values:
| Name of oncomarker || Normal values |
| SCC || 2.5 ng / mL |
| CA 125 || 35 IU / mL |
| CA 15-3 || 22 IU / mL |
| ASA || 11 IU / mL |
| ASE || 15 ng / mL |
| REA ||5 ng / ml |
| hCG || 5 IU / mL |
| AFP || 15 IU / mL |
A small increase in these indices is observed in inflammatory diseases, with benign tumors and cystosis.
Special demands are made on women. For example, when donating blood to the PSA, you should refrain from sexual intercourse.
CA 125 is a protein that synthesizes the endometrium of the uterus. Therefore, its concentration varies during the menstrual cycle.
Alpha protein values can be increased in pregnant women, and cancer-embryonic antigen in smokers. Therefore, before giving the test, be sure to give the doctor about yourself full information.
Affects the level and age of the woman. With menopause, there is imbalance of the hormonal sphere, slowing down of metabolic processes. Therefore, during this period, studies become less reliable. The oncologist usually assigns repeated confirmation of the results.
Regardless of which oncomarker was examined, the results are ready from day to week.
This mainly depends on where the biomaterial was collected. If in a usual out-patient department, the waiting time increases. Today there are many medical laboratories around the country that will be able to provide results the next day.
How much does the analysis cost?
First determine where you will take tests. The future depends on this.
The doctor will tell you how many oncomarkers you need to pass. This is determined on a case by case basis.
You can pass it for free according to the indications at the oncology center. They are in every major city.
They donate blood in laboratories. When choosing, pay attention to the availability of licenses.
In conclusion, we note that an increased level of cancer markers does not once indicate the presence of cancer. In such a situation, you first have to weigh, which led to a false result, and then re-take the blood.
Reassign the study in about three months.
MRI, endoscopic examinations and biopsy are used to confirm the diagnosis. Only on the basis of a complex of the carried out actions the doctor will diagnose.