The thyroid gland performs the most important function in the body, since it produces thyroid hormones, without which no organism can exist.
For diagnostics of thyroid or parathyroid pathologies, deep diagnosis with the use of radiotherapy is sometimes required, for example, scintigraphic examination.
What is it?
Scintigraphic examination is a functional visualization of the studied tissues, which consists in the introduction of preparations of radioactive isotopes and the production of images through radiation emitted by them.
Before the study, a patient is given one of the drugs like technetium or radioactive iodine.
The glands well absorb the radio product, as a result, after its introduction, it is possible to evaluate the activity of individual areas of the thyroid or parathyroid glands. These areas in the images are hot or cold nodes( depending on the degree of activity).
In cold areas, the drug does not accumulate, which means that they do not produce hormonal substances. I
n the pictures they are displayed in blue-blue areas and are shown on colloid cysts or tumor formations.
Hot areas are detected when a radioactive substance is accumulated in certain areas of the thyroid or parathyroid glands. The presence of such zones indicates hypothyroidism, toxic adenoma, diffuse or multinodular toxic goiter, functional glandular autonomy, etc.
Scintigraphy is considered the most highly sensitive diagnostic method that helps to detect the presence of pathogenetic processes in their early stages, and injectable markers do not harm the body and are naturally excretedfrom the body.
The irradiation is fixed much lower than with traditional radiography.
Indications and contraindications
Scintigraphic diagnosis of thyroid and parathyroid structures is prescribed in various clinical situations such as:
- Abnormal arrangement of organs;
- Nodular tumors;
- Elevated levels of parathyroid hormone;
- Osteoporosis of incomprehensible origin;
- Suspected adenoma, carcinoma or hyperplasia.
The use of drugs with radioactivity does not require high radiation indices, so there is no risk from the procedure.
However, the scintigraphic study is contraindicated in pregnancy, allergic intolerance of contrast medium. In addition, it is not recommended to carry out diagnostics for patients whose weight is more than 150 kg.
The procedure is performed by lactating women, children of the first year of life and elderly patients. If the scintigraphic diagnosis was performed by a breastfeeding woman, then breastfeeding is stopped for 2-3 days until the radioactive preparation is completely removed from the body.
Preparation for scintigraphy of thyroid and parathyroid glands
Before the diagnosis it is necessary to inform the doctor about the existing drug allergy and other intolerable substances.
In addition, three months before the study, you must abandon any X-ray contrast treatment, and a month - from taking iodine-containing drugs.
How is the study going?
The procedure for radioisotope diagnostics takes approximately 20-30 minutes. This is a non-invasive study, before which the patient is injected with a contrast radiopreparation. Sometimes the patient is given a capsule preparation instead of a prick.
Within a certain time this radioactive drug accumulates in the parathyroid gland or thyroid gland, after which the doctor conducts the scan in a gamma camera.
As a result of the procedure, a specialist receives a scintigram showing the pathological areas, if any. Usually the images are taken in three steps:
- 10 minutes after the administration of the drug;
- After 2 hours;
- After 3 hours.
The procedure for radioisotope diagnosis usually does not cause any complications, but in some cases, there may be side reactions like:
- Rapid urination;
- Pressure surges, etc.
Some patients have a blush or hot flashes during the procedure, which can not be considered a complication.
Sometimes there is an increase in heart rate or an increase in blood pressure, but these are reversible deviations, which soon disappear on their own. The level of irradiation in the study is very low, so do not be afraid of it.
Interpretation of results of
Patient results can be obtained in half an hour or several days after the study.
The decoding of the results describes hot and cold zones.
Cold areas often speak of colloid nodular goiter or a tumor and require additional biopsy diagnostics.
Hot sites indicate a congestion of the radiopreparation, which indicates the presence of cellular structures that absorb the radiopreparation. A similar pattern is observed with toxic goiter or toxic adenoma.
Where to make a survey in Moscow?
In the capital, you can go through scintigraphy in many medical institutions like:
- Central Design Bureau of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
- of OJSC "Medicine";
- FBTC them. Burnazyan;
- Volyn hospital;
- Central Design Bureau No. 2 of Russian Railways;
- GKB them. Pirogova;
- MEDSI, etc.
The price of scintigraphy of thyroid and parathyroid glands
The procedure is quite affordable and will cost about 1100-9800 rubles.