About the properties of methamphetamine to stimulate physical activity, increase efficiency, making forget about hunger and sleep, has been known for more than 100 years, since the synthesis of this crystalline powder. But about its neurotoxicity, the ability to induce addiction and destroy a person in a few weeks, it became known only at the end of the last century. Today, the substance can be described with confidence as the most dangerous drug.
Methamphetamine - N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine - a derivative of amphetamine, the strongest stimulant of mental, cardiac, physical functions.
Methamphetamine is synthesized by the chemist Nagai Nagayoshi. Widely used in the years of World War II as a means of fatigue. Used in the warring armies under the brand name Pervitin.
Since then, the distribution of the drug has been controlled, methamphetamine has been added to the list of the UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
Drugs with methamphetamine hydr
ochloride under the trade name Desoxyn are authorized in the US, Canada, Denmark, Australia. In Russia, they are listed on the first list of drug control and are banned.
Structurally methamphetamine is a mixture( racemate) of bulk isomers - molecules of the same formula, but spatially mirror image - D-enantiomer( dextrorotatory) and L-enantiomer( levorotatory).
Despite the same formula, the chemical properties of enantiomers are different.
D-enantiomer of methamphetamine:
- Strongest stimulant of CNS;
- exhibits sympathomimetic properties;
- slightly stimulates the CNS, 10 times weaker than its specular reflection - the d-enantiomer.
The L-enantiomer is a drug that is part of the Wicks inhaler, the drug Metedrine, and Deoxin.
The difference in the properties of optical isomers explains the difference in their use. As a drug, a racemic mixture consisting of enantiomers of both species in equal amounts is used.
Methamphetamine is a psychostimulant, acts on the adrenoreceptors of brain nerve cells, smooth muscles of the bronchi, skeletal muscles, cardiac muscle.
The compound exhibits the ability to raise blood pressure, and also has an effect, like an anorexigenic substance. Anorexigent( depressing appetite) action is explained by methamphetamine stimulation of the saturation center in the brain.
In addition, by stimulating the centers of the brain, methamphetamine causes hypersexuality, euphoria.
Methamphetamine is used in medicine subcutaneously, intravenously, in the form of tablets inside, inhaled, blown, put rectally, vaginally in the form of candles.
The preparation of the L-enantiomer of methamphetamine is used as a medicine.
The drug is released strictly according to the doctor's prescription, is used to treat:
- attention disorders in children, hyperactivity;
- against obesity;
- for narcolepsy;
- as a sympathomimetic.
To distinguish illegal methamphetamine from drugs, it is possible according to the analysis of urine. Illegal drug contains, in addition to the drug, additives with the help of which traders increase the volume of their goods. The supplements themselves can be safe. But the fact that the concentration of the drug in each individual lot is different, creates the danger of an overdose.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride is used in tablets, powder, crystals( ice).More often methamphetamine is sold in the form of a powder of white color. When adding impurities, the powder color can be purple, brown, pink. Can even smell lilies of the valley, if poorly cleaned.
Powder is inhaled through the nose or injected into a vein. Tablets( jabu, shabu) were distributed in Asia.
Crystalline methamphetamine ice is a purified D-enantiomer( right-sided stereoisomer) of methamphetamine hydrochloride. The crystals are used for smoking, inhalation. Use ice to smoke steel in Hawaii in 1985-1987.
The time when methamphetamine is absorbed into the blood with smoking is 7 minutes - during this time the drug achieves maximum concentration in the blood. When smoking, the impact on the brain( hit - fry.) Occurs faster than when inhaled.
Documentary about methamphetamine:
Mechanism of action
Methamphetamine drug due to the ability to dissolve in fats easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier into the brain. Due to the peculiarities of the structure( the presence of the methyl group), the drug molecule is not destroyed in the brain by the enzyme monoamine oxidase.
Similarity to adrenaline allows methamphetamine to bind to this enzyme, blocking its activity. That additionally extends the time of action of the drug, as a decrease in the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase increases the release of monoamines of neurotransmitters, which include serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline.
The release of monoamine neurotransmitters and creates an explosion of enthusiastic happiness among drug addicts.
What is dangerous?
That protivotin, which is offered on the streets, in nightclubs, has nothing to do with the drug. And it is a handicraft drug substance containing, in addition to a dangerous drug, poisonous by-products.
Along with the by-products of the drug synthesis, the mixture turns out to be unreacted components from which this mixture was prepared.
Such a brew may contain:
- rechargeable lithium;
- rechargeable acid;
- cleaner for sewage.
All this makes methamphetamine use unpredictable. A multifaceted action, the duration of drug intoxication turn methamphetamine into a dangerous drug.
Street names for methamphetamine - crystal, screw, plant, starch, ice, meth, club drug. The peculiarity of this hellish mixture is that it is quite capable of causing addiction after the first use and serious consequences for the organism. In the photo, the effect of methamphetamine on the body
Dependence on methamphetamine
Methamphetamine causes mental and physical dependence. Mental addiction develops quickly. It is enough to prick 3-5 times or 2-3 weeks poprinimat methamphetamine in tablets.
There are three stages of dependence on methamphetamine:
- low - take pills, drink, inhale, take usually in order to keep activity at night, lose weight;
- average - smoke ice, injected intravenously, which corresponds to the stage of psychological dependence;
- intensive - the arrival, even approximately similar to the first sensations, no. The patient, under methamphetamine, does not stop at anything, rushes to his goal - getting high.
Physical addiction develops at an individual rate, and depends on many factors - the nature of nutrition, the state of health, both physical and mental, of inherited predisposing factors.
Like the hangover of an alcoholic, the withdrawal from a drug addict is a direct indication of the physiological need for a drug. A break or abstinence syndrome in a methamphetamine addict can last up to 2.5 months. There is an abstinence in almost 90% of drug addicts from methamphetamine.
Addicts at this stage risk getting a heart attack, falling into a coma, getting schizophrenia with paranoid delirium. The condition of the withdrawal syndrome can occur after 9 hours and even 4 days after the withdrawal of the drug. The heaviest condition is noted in the first week of breaking.
The course of treatment of methamphetamine dependence needs to be taken at a rehabilitation center. The strongest psychological dependence will cross out even the most remarkable result of the treatment of physical dependence. Therefore, the question of how to quit a drug should be approached with all responsibility.
At the first stage, the patient is assigned a detoxification program that lasts usually 3-7 days. The goal of treatment is to eliminate the excitation of dopamine receptors. For this, drug treatment is used.
Assign haloperidol, glucose, necessarily - vitamins of group B. The patient most often requires consultations of a psychiatrist, cardiologist, urologist to restore lost health.
Long-term psychotherapy is required at the stage of rehabilitation. Narcological clinics offer clients psycho-correction programs, provide post-rehabilitation support, work individually, in groups, with families.
An important component of the treatment is the socialization of the patient. During this period, he especially needs support, it is very difficult to independently resist the entrenched dependence.
The longer methamphetamine dependence lasts, the heavier the patient's condition and the more difficult the treatment. To fully cure a methamphetamine addict taking into account the time for rehabilitation, socialization of the patient, it may take more than 2 years.