It is known for certain that lamblia can appear in the human body, even when he is zealously observing the rules of personal hygiene. Therefore, a description of the life cycle of giardias should be of interest to many people. Information about who the lamblia is, what their habitat is, how the simplest microorganisms multiply, how much they live in the external environment, will allow each infected person not to panic, but to seek help from specialists and start treatment on time.
There are two forms of development in the course of the life cycle of Giardia. They get inside the person by contact-household and oral-fecal route or through the use of un-boiled tap water. They easily tolerate the aggressive environment of the stomach and straight into the small intestine. There, tiny parasites reliably attach to the walls of the mucous layer with a special sucking disc and absorb all the cells of their tiny body( the size of the largest specimens does not exceed 25 microns) useful substances that accum
ulate in the near wall space, and also actively multiply.
Cycle of development of lamblia
For normal existence lamblia do not need oxygen, they actively multiply due to longitudinal division. The life cycle of lamblia begins with the birth of trophozoites - the vegetative forms of giardias, each such specimen looks like a pear: the anterior end of trophozoites is wide and rounded, the posterior is thin and sharp. Trophozoites due to the presence of eight flagella actively move inside the intestine and easily descend from the small intestine into the thick. This is where the reproduction( division) of trophozoite and the formation of cysts takes place.
Cysts of lamblia are half the size of trophozoite, they are oval in shape. Since they do not have flagella, cysts can not move independently, but they are capable, like trophozoites, to divide and double in quantity. At night, this process increases its intensity. How long does this cycle last, how long does it take for a new lamblia from the cyst to appear? Only ten minutes. Scientists have established that the reproduction of two forms of existence of parasites( trophozoite and cyst) is not related.
There is an opinion that trophozoites are degenerated into cysts only under the influence of a high level of gallbladder secretion. This circumstance is confirmed by the fact that along with the feces both cysts and trophozoites go out. The first demonstrate extraordinary vitality. How much does a cyst live while leaving the intestine? In the external environment, it dies within two weeks, and in water the life of their life increases to two months, trophozoites, going outside, immediately die. Cysts return to the intestines of the host by the oral route. The life cycle is completed. A person becomes infected when more than 10 cysts of lamblia get inside. The incubation period, as already mentioned above, is very short. In the small intestine, the cyst is converted into an adult specimen for ten minutes, and then the adults begin to multiply.
What is the danger of multiplication of lamblia?
As you can see, the life cycle of giardias does not require the formation of any special conditions, a small parasite for successful growth requires only heat and moisture. A huge colony of lamblia can form only ten cysts. Sometimes she lives in the infected intestines for years, not revealing herself. And only chronic forms have a certain symptomatology. Parasites feed at the expense of their host, which is why the patient loses nutrients. From this, the body quickly weakens and begins to give some disruptions. How long does it take for the first symptoms of infection to appear? Acute invasive stages always develop quite quickly, but chronic forms of giardiasis sometimes occur without bright manifestations.
First of all, the intestinal tract suffers. The disease almost always leads to a violation of secretory and motor-evacuation properties of the intestine. Since practically the entire life cycle proceeds inside one infected patient, during its life, giardia produce a large amount of toxins. They gradually poison the patient and cause allergic reactions.
Because the lamblia development cycle is short( the parasite lives, multiplies, goes outside and gets to the new host, one cycle is sometimes performed within a day), and this cycle can last forever. If the patient refuses treatment, he will become a potential source of danger for the people around him. The contact and everyday way of infection is the most common, the intestine is an ideal habitat, the simplest flagellates can live for years, so it is so important to know as much as possible about the life features of the described small parasite.
Timely detection and treatment of Giardiasis is the main component of health preservation. Knowledge of the life cycle of parasites, the incubation period, the habitat of giardias, the mechanisms of their reproduction help to dispel doubts and in time to seek medical help.