Lymph nodes are the organs of the immune system that are responsible for protecting the body from infectious attacks. When a pathogenic microorganism penetrates the body, it enters the lymph nodes, where it is further destroyed.
Lymph nodes also fight with cancer cells. The human body has about 600 lymph nodes.
Like any organic structure, lymph nodes undergo various diseases. Determine the exact diagnosis, unfortunately, is not always possible to determine.
The most important diagnostic value in terms of informativity is a lymph node biopsy, which is usually prescribed to determine the etiology or clarification of lymphedema or lymphostasis.
The concept of
Lymph node biopsy is a common diagnostic procedure prescribed for certain indications.
Similar procedure is a small surgical intervention, during which the doctor takes a part or the entire lymph node.
Indications and contraindications
Lymph node structures can undergo various lesions and pathological processes; therefo
re, for the biopsy study there are many indications:
- The procedure is carried out to determine the degree of malignancy and etiology of lymphadenopathy, if this can not be determined by non-invasive diagnostic methods;
- Lymph node biopsy is prescribed for long-term lymphadenopathy, despite treatment received by the patient;
- When a symptom is found that indicates a tumor etiology of lymphadenopathy in the form of metastatic or proliferative( lymphoma or lymphogranulomatosis) lesions of lymph nodes;
- When detection of dense, greatly enlarged but painless lymph nodes, supplemented with intoxication symptoms, at the first medical examination, biopsy diagnostics is appointed immediately.
In the remaining clinical cases, categorical indications for lymphatic biopsy are not available.
The procedure has a number of contraindications, among which:
- Hypocoagulation syndrome, which is a violation of blood flow;
- If there is suppuration in the lymph node or adjacent tissues
- Cervical lymph node biopsy is contraindicated in cervical spine kyphosis.
Lymph node biopsy requires maximum professionalism, because lymph nodes are the most important elements of the body's defense system. Their defeat is already disrupting the functioning of the immune system, and additional damage to it will only worsen the condition.
Methods of taking
Biopsy sampling for lymph node biopsy can be carried out in a variety of ways: aspiration, puncture, open.
Each of the methods differs in pros and cons, so you need to consider them separately.
Aspiration biopsy with the use of a thin needle allows you to get a biopsy from the subcutaneous lymph node structures of the supraclavicular or submandibular localization without complications. Do this procedure on an outpatient basis. It is practically painless and quite often used in modern diagnostics to clarify the pathology.
The procedure is performed using a hollow fine needle, and if the node is not palpable, the manipulations are controlled by an ultrasound machine. A similar technique is used for metastatic or infectious processes in lymph node tissues.
There are other methods of sampling bio-samples of lymph node tissue.
A biopsy procedure performed by the puncture method involves obtaining a column of the bio-sample that undergoes a histological examination.
The puncture biopsy of the lymph nodes is similar to the aspiration, only the needles for this procedure are equipped with a madrane, which provides clipping and retention of the biomaterial.
An excisional biopsy study involves obtaining a biopsy specimen by an open surgical procedure. The doctor makes a mini-incision through which the complete removal of the affected lymph node is performed with a scalpel.
The patient is put on the operating table, leads a general anesthesia, disinfects the incision site and removes the lymph node along with a small piece of adjacent tissue. Then the incision is sewn, a bandage is applied.
The whole procedure takes less than an hour( 30-45 minutes).
This technique is used more often than others, which is associated with the greatest informativeness and reliability of the results obtained.
Sometimes an open lymphatic biopsy is performed intraoperatively, then an express diagnosis is performed, and if a malignant element is detected in the lymph nodes, an extended surgical operation is performed.
Biopsy of watchdog lymph nodes
A biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes is performed to determine the prevalence of malignant process and to remove several lymph nodes instead of their group.
A sentinel node is a lymph node, which is first affected by cancer cells.
The tendency of tumors to lymphogenous metastasis and spreading is considered to be a significant problem in the therapy of oncopathologies. Therefore, in practice, removal of whole lymph node groups is often used.
Thanks to the biopsy of the sentinel lymph nodes it is possible to save a significant part of the lymph nodes. Today the concept of biopsy research of the lymph nodes of the watchdog value is increasingly being introduced into the standard therapeutic procedure for most tumors.
How to prepare?
It is first necessary to consult a doctor.
It is necessary to clearly describe your condition, tell you about the existing chronic pathologies, allergic reactions, pregnancy, problems with blood-swill.
If a patient undergoes medical therapy while taking certain medications, then this should also be warned by a specialist.
- 7 days before the procedure, stop taking any medications that can cause blood thinning, for example, Aspercard, Warfarin, Aspirin, Cardiomagnum, Heparin, etc.
- When using anesthesia for 10-12 hours before taking the biomaterial, stop drinking and eating.
How is a lymph node biopsy performed?
The procedure for lymph node biopsy is performed similarly to a biopsy from other parts of the body. The patient is placed on a couch or an operating table, injected with anesthesia or anesthesia.
The skin is incised or punctured with a needle, depending on the method of obtaining the biopsy. Then a seam is applied to the incision site, a bandage is applied to the puncture, and the specimen obtained during the study is sent for histology.
The procedure does not cause painful sensations, since it is performed with anesthesia or anesthesia. The duration of the whole process is about 30-50 minutes.
After returning home, you can not wet the place of incision or puncture, so the bath and shower are prohibited. For a few days will have to give up excessive physical activity. The results are usually ready after a week, although their expectation can stretch for 10 days.
Getting a biopsy is an operation, albeit minimally invasive, as penetration into the body takes place.
Therefore, in carrying out this procedure, there is a risk of complications, among which the most common are:
- Bleeding, which after several hours pass independently;
- Numbness of the area in which the investigated lymph node is located;
- Damage to nervous or lymphatic tissues;
- Fainting condition or dizziness;
- Infectious complications.
The cost of biopsy diagnostics of lymph nodes is quite fragmented - from 1500 to 6680 rubles. In private clinics of the mind for the passage of a biopsy of the lymph node can reach more than 14,000 rubles.
Although a lymph node biopsy and refers to fairly simple diagnostic procedures and is well tolerated by patients, it is necessary to agree to such a diagnosis provided that it will be conducted by a highly qualified doctor, and the clinic itself, in which the study is planned, is characterized by patients only on the positive side.
It is better to get acquainted with reviews about such a procedure in this hospital in advance. This precaution will avoid unforeseen complications and preserve health.
The video shows a mediastinal lymph node biopsy: