Children have a special ear structure. Therefore, otitis occur more often than in adults. A common runny nose can become a trigger mechanism for the development of the disease. Almost all children under the age of three were sick with otitis. In the absence of treatment, the consequences are very serious, up to the loss of hearing. Therefore, parents should not only know the signs of the disease, but also the basis for proper treatment.
It can be acute or chronic. Depending on the location of the focus, the infection is divided into the external, middle and inner. Two-sided form in children develops less often, but more often in the period from infancy to school age, otitis media of the middle ear develops.
The disease occurs in several stages:
- First. There is an inflammation of the auditory tube. This leads to a disruption in the regulation of pressure in the tympanum.
- Second. The formation of pus joins. When its amount increases, the eardrum bursts. If this does not happe
n, the doctor pierces it to clear the pus.
- Third. There is a restoration of the tympanic membrane, a complete renewal of the functions of the middle ear.
Infection of hair follicles is one of the causes of the development of the external form. It can develop against the background of abrasions and scratches, suppuration. The average otitis is more often a complication after SARS, childhood infections, adenoids, rhinitis, pharyngitis and others. From the side of the external passage, the disease can develop with a trauma to the tympanic membrane.
Causes of otitis in children and their treatment:
Let us dwell in more detail on some types:
- Otitis externa. Usually manifests itself in the form of a furuncle. Even minor injuries can cause illness. It is necessary to carefully clean the ears, using the usual cotton wool.
- Average Otitis. Is a consequence of a common cold. Lead to it can staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci. This species can be acute, recurrent, chronic. By nature it is divided into catarrhal or purulent.
- Internal. It is called a labyrinthite. Inflammation is localized in one of the deepest levels of the organ of hearing. Doctors to this day can not say with certainty about the causes of the disease.
How does otitis media look like
Antibiotics for children
There are many conflicting opinions about whether antibiotics are needed in the treatment of otitis media. They can cope with bacteria and microbes, but their reception is not always appropriate. Most doctors agree that while perforating the membrane and cleaning it from the exudative fluid, it is not necessary to take antibiotics.
When are they required?
Antibacterial drugs must be prescribed with otitis if:
- is less than 2 years old;
- signs of intoxication;
- body temperature keeps at a mark above 39 degrees;
- has a strong pain syndrome.
When can I do without them?
If the doctor chooses "waiting tactics", it is best not to give the child antibiotics on his own. With an external form, anti-inflammatory ointments or drops with an analgesic effect can be used.
You can do without antibacterial drugs and with catarrhal form. It is expressed in the inflammation of the middle ear without purulent contents. In this case, less aggressive drugs are prescribed, which do not destroy the beneficial microflora of the ear.
How to inject drops into the ear with external otitis
Features of treatment
For the treatment of otitis, preparations of local or systemic action are used. Drops are the first kind. In inflammation of the outer ear, the infection does not penetrate the eardrum, but with a high probability it can be assumed that the bacterial flora has joined the disease. Therefore, treatment should be comprehensive.
To systemic preparations concern various:
- tablets( conventional and effervescent),
The most popular drugs
It is found that most bacteria that cause inflammation of the middle ear are resistant to penicillins. But the drugs of this series continue to be quite popular, as they are well tolerated by children and have a minimal amount of various adverse reactions.
Amoxicillin is most commonly prescribed. On sale it is usually known as "Flemoxin Solutab".It is made in the form of powder for the preparation of solution or in the form of sweet tablets. The more serious drugs of the same group include Amoxicillin Clavulanate or Amoxiclav.
Doctors if necessary to treat otitis with antibiotics prescribe cephalosporins. They help if the bacteria that led to the disease showed resistance to the drugs from the first group. The disadvantages of such drugs include the destruction of vitamin K and the violation of hematopoiesis.
Despite this, macrolides are used for children only in the case when other medications did not bring the desired result. These include Azithromycin, Roxytomycin, Clarithromycin.
Local preparations in drops
All ear drops can be divided into several groups:
- with a combination composition,
- mono preparations,
- antibacterial drops.
Often is most often appointed. This antibacterial drug is widely used for ear disorders. Not suitable for babies with intolerance to rifamycin. Sofrax is used to treat otitis in infants and children of different ages.
More senior children, after 12 years, are assigned Neladex. Since there is often an intolerance of the active substance, it is administered with extreme caution.
The following local action drops can be assigned:
- Miramidez. It is used after the first year of life.
- Anauran. Combined drug with antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic action. Side effects are rare.
- Garazon. It is prescribed for children older than 8 years. The drops combine a broad-spectrum antibiotic and betamethasone.
Drugs for the treatment of otitis in children
The course of treatment with systemic antibiotics is 5-7 days. In some cases, more time is needed to fight the infection. Then the doctors prescribe the drug for 10-12 days.
The dosage of the drug is prescribed only by the pediatrician, because it depends on the age and weight of the baby. In case of an overdose, severe allergies, thrush or other more serious consequences may occur.
Do I need to be afraid?
Do not drip antibiotics into your ears until the doctor tells you that the eardrum is whole. In general, parents should not be afraid of antibiotic treatment of children.
The spread of infection, the acquisition of a chronic form, can lead to more serious consequences, for example, hearing loss, the development of bacterial flora and the involvement of other systems and organs in the inflammatory process.
Dr. Komarovsky's comments on the treatment of otitis with antibiotics:
Dangerous symptoms in overdose or allergy
Some medications overdose lead to a negative effect on the auditory nerve. Therefore, the result can be a hearing loss. In general, this applies to combined drugs intended for adults. Sometimes, due to the lack of the right medicine at hand, they are used.
For allergies or overdoses, the toddler may complain:
- for itching and burning.
- for dizziness and dysfunction of the vestibular apparatus.
- for headaches.
Parents may notice the appearance of urticaria and other skin reactions to the active substance. In rare cases, when taking drugs of systemic action, Quincke's edema appears.
Pros and Cons of
Advantages of antibacterial drugs include:
- Indispensability in bacterial infections. Otitis often occurs due to bacteria, so antibiotics allow you to quickly cope with the disease.
- Large selection of drugs. You can choose a tool, focusing on the age of the child, the presence of concomitant diseases.
- Ability to reduce the risk of recurrence.
With a properly selected preparation, the prognosis after taking antibiotics is favorable. Otitis in a child retreats for a long time or forever. To achieve a quick result, it is recommended to use an integrated approach to treatment. If the otitis is started, then the probability of developing persistent hearing loss is high.