Catheterization refers to the introduction of a special tube( catheter), which may have a different shape and length, diameter and material of manufacture, into certain cavity structures or channels of the body for the purpose of treatment or diagnosis.
Catheterization of the kidney
Catheterization of the kidney is the management of a catheter in the ureter or pelvis. A similar procedure is performed using a special urethrocystoscope, along which the ureteral catheter is advanced. The procedure requires strict adherence to antiseptic and aseptic rules. Sometimes catheterization is prescribed for the purpose of sensing or draining.
Why put a catheter
In general, the catheterization is indicated in the following cases:
- For determining ureteral patency and the degree of obstruction in it;
- In order to obtain separate urine for the diagnosis of leukocyturia and to determine its origin;
- To eliminate stasis of urine;
- Lowered concrements;
- For the procedure of retrograde pyeloureterography;
- For the recovery of urine flow in the acute form of pyelonephritis or ureteric occlusion with a stone.
Indication for the procedure may vary depending on the sex and age of the patient.
In pregnant women, the risk of developing kidney pathologies is significantly increased, which is associated with changes in the genito-urinary organs during the period of gestation. Kidney damage adversely affects pregnancy and fetal health.
Catheterization to pregnant women may be prescribed in such cases as:
- Renal hydronephrosis;
- Chronic or gestational pyelonephritis.
Catheterization in pregnant women with pyelonephritis performs a serious therapeutic task - relieves the patient of renal blockade.
The procedure for catheterization in men is technologically more complicated, because the length of the male urethra is greater than that of the female urethra.
Indications for catheterization in male patients are:
- Urinary disorders;
- Inflammatory processes in the urinary system( for rinsing purposes);
- For chronic or acute urinary retention;
- To obtain urine from the pelvis for the purpose of its more detailed study;
- For therapeutic purposes, the technique is used to administer drugs.
Usually a soft catheter is used, but if it is not possible to enter it, then use a hard tube, for example, with prostate adenoma or with urethral stricture.
In women, catheterization of the kidney and ureter in addition to diagnostic purposes and some of the above diseases can also be carried out with acute nephritis and urolithiasis. When this is done, the attending physician decides.
If the kidneys have stones, the catheter helps to restore the urine flow, which is covered by a stone.
Performing the procedure
Most often in the process of catheterization, rubber catheters of different length and diameter are installed. The procedure is carried out using a cystoscope, at the end of which there is a specialized equipment for the most accurate installation of the tube - the lift of Albarran.
The micro camera on the instrument visualizes the progress of the catheter:
- Before placing a catheter, a cystoscope is inserted into the bladder if a procedure is performed for men, then a solution of local anesthesia is preset. Before the introduction, the hole of the urethra must be treated with an antiseptic.
- The cystoscope is thoroughly disinfected before administration and treated with petroleum or glycerin oil.
- For women, this procedure is performed in a posture lying on the back with diluted hips and bent knees.
- If necessary, the vesicle cavity is pre-washed from blood or urine residues and filled with saline solution.
- Then the exit into the ureter is sought by rotating the microcamera of the cystoscope. When the ureteral estuary is detected, the micro-chamber is led to it so that it increases and lies directly in the center of the visual field.
- Then carefully insert the catheter. Going to the right place, it is fixed. How long the procedure lasts, depends on the goals.
As for the period for which the catheter is placed, everything depends on the purpose. For the purpose of diagnosis, the doctor receives the necessary biomaterial and removes the device back. If the procedure is carried out for therapeutic purposes, then the catheter can be left indefinitely, for example, for the gadfly from the pelvis of urine. Then a special tube is used, which has hinges at the end for better fixing.
If there are problems with urination, the catheterization is performed 6 times a day( every 4 hours).If the catheter is worn for a long time, an infectious process may occur, so the doctor periodically takes it out, rinses it, and sets it back. Let's pay attention that only an experienced specialist can wash the catheter.