Kidney diseases cause a lot of trouble and discomfort to patients. Kidneys are a kind of body filter that cleans the blood of toxic and other unnecessary substances. An important role in the purification process is given to the pelvic structures that distribute which blood will return back to the vessels, and which part of it will go to the urinary structures. But the work of the kidneys becomes more complicated if the pyelitis develops.
Pielit - what is it?
Pyelitis is the inflammatory process in the renal pelvis system( ICD code N11.0, N11.1).Pathology can occur at any age, but is most common in children older than 6 months, especially 2-5-year-old girls. This predisposition is directly related to the genitourinary structure in the female body.
Often suffer from pyelitis and a woman in position, as the fetus puts pressure on the urinary system. In men, pyelitis develops more often on the background of surgical intervention on the prostate.
Forms and Causes of
Pielit is classified into several groups. In accordance with the clinical course, the pathology can be chronic or acute. Acute pyelitis develops against the background of infectious processes of staphylococcal, streptococcal and intestinal origin, penetrating into the pelvis ascending, lymphogenous or hematogenous. Chronic pyelitis is usually formed against the background of an incomplete acute inflammation of pelvis.
In addition, the pielites are divided into primary and secondary:
- Primary develops against the background of staphylococcal, streptococcal, gonococcal infections, and can also be provoked by E. coli.
- Secondary pyelitis usually occurs after typhoid fever, scarlet fever, or sore throat. In addition, various injuries and bruises, urolithiasis, pregnancy and hypothermia can provoke the disease.
There are also people with pathologically low immune status( pregnant and children) abusing alcohol and tobacco, malnourished or abusing dietary diets, hypodynamical and those who suffer long before urinating
in the risk group of inflammation of the renal pelvis. Signs and symptoms
Pielit enoughjust can be confused with other pathological conditions, especially in infants, since it lacks any characteristic symptomatology.
In patients there are such manifestations as:
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- A matured shade of skin on the face;
- Signs of organic intoxication;
- Lack of appetite;
- There are sharp ups and downs of temperature.
Regarding the pielit of the chronic form, it periodically exacerbates, showing signs of acute inflammation of the pelvis:
- Strong painful sensations in the lumbar region;
- With fever and fever;
- Lack of appetite and possible vomiting;
- There are signs of dehydration like a dry tongue with a light or gray coating.
Between periods of exacerbation, the pathology is asymptomatic, only some patients experience hyperthermia and chronic fatigue. Chronic pyelitis in the phase of calm can be detected only by laboratory tests of urine.
If the inflammatory lesion has swept both kidneys, the pathology clinic is more pronounced, patients complain of general malaise, severe lumbar pains, often radiating to the perineum and ribs. In such patients, urination is often impaired, accompanied by severe discomfort.
Diagnostic tests for pyelitis involve the following procedures:
- Biochemistry and general blood examination. These analyzes with pyelitis show accelerated ESR and increase in leukocytes;
- Ultrasonography of the kidney;
- Radionuclide Diagnostics;
- Women are additionally assigned a gynecological examination to exclude "female" pathologies.
After a comprehensive diagnosis based on the findings, the doctor prescribes the necessary therapy.
On the video diagnosis of pyelitis based on patient complaints and ultrasound of the kidneys:
The initial task of the treatment is to eliminate the symptoms of the pathological process, for which NSAIDs are appointed. In severe cases, pyelitis is used for intravenous and intramuscular infusion of medications. In such a case, the patient must necessarily keep bed rest and rest, as well as personal hygiene.
When a pain syndrome is removed, medication is prescribed with the use of drugs such as:
- Antibiotics like Amoxicillin or Cefazolin, Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime. If pyelitis is severe, then the use of antibiotics Vancomycin or Amikacin is indicated;
- Bacteriostatic or bactericidal agents( Urotropin, Salol);
- Antimicrobials - Biseptol or Ofloxacin, Streptocide or Norfloxacin, etc.;
- Painkillers like Spazmalgin or No-Shpa;
- Antipyretic drugs.
Regarding what to treat it, it is worth mentioning that it is strictly forbidden to eat salts and spicy dishes, to drink alcohol. The daily ration must include freshly squeezed vegetable juices.
Use of smoked products, spicy seasonings, alcohol, marinades and salt is strictly excluded in case of chronic pyelitis. It is necessary to revise and drink the regime, on the day the patient should drink about 4 liters of water. For the prevention of exacerbations, it is recommended to avoid hypothermia and to eat properly, to observe intimate hygiene and to treat any pathologies in a timely manner, to receive a sufficient number of vitamins on a daily basis.
Pielit with untimely treatment or its absence can lead to various complications such as urosepsis, chronization, kidney failure, bacteremia shock or apostematous nephritis. If treatment is received on time, then the disease can be cured in a couple of weeks. If the pathology appeared on the background of pregnancy, it will pass by itself after the birth of the baby.
Pielit is often confused with other diseases, which leads to erroneous diagnosis and incorrect therapeutic purposes, which is fraught with the development of complications and the chronicization of the inflammatory process. The therapy of chronic pyelitis may take several years. If the background of chronic pyelitis is observed constant hyperthermia and the presence of pus in the urine, then these patients are recognized temporarily or permanently incapacitated.