Crohn's disease is treated in 2 ways, medically( therapeutic) and surgical. But the most effective is the method in which they are combined, that is, after the operation, drug therapy is prescribed. The choice of therapy depends on the stage of activity of the disease, and which part of the digestive tract is affected by the inflammation. It also takes into account the severity of the accompanying symptoms.
The most common cases for the appointment of surgery are the following:
- Emergencies. They occur much less frequently than with ulcerative colitis and are expressed in the blockage of the intestine( complete obstruction), severe intoxication of the organism, which has developed as a result of the disease, perforation of the walls of any digestive organ;
- The operation is recommended even in case of long( more than 8 years) course of Crohn's disease, since in this case the probability of cancer development multiply increases;
- In children, a surgical method of treating this pathology is recommended in the event that there are delays in physical and sexual development;
- Indication for surgery will be and narrowing of the intestines, which cause multiple scars, left after healing ulcers. If they are not removed, the patient will have constant intestinal obstruction;
- Another indicator for the operation with Crohn's disease is the lack of results from the medication. In this case, such areas in the intestine where irreversible changes occur are eliminated.
What are the risks of surgical treatment of Crohn's disease?
Any patient who is assigned an operation for Crohn's disease, is interested in the possibility of negative consequences. There is no unequivocal opinion of specialists in this matter, because due to individual characteristics, each person's disease varies in different ways. Therefore, before the appointment of an operative intervention, a specialist to exclude possible risks is subjected to a deep diagnosis, and only then a method of therapy is chosen.
Operations performed with Crohn's disease, like any others, involve a danger that is associated with general anesthesia. In addition, there are other risks:
- Infectious complications;
- Spikes and scars;
- Occlusion or leakage of the small intestine.
What types of operations are performed with Crohn's disease?
When surgical treatment of this inflammatory pathology of the digestive system, the most common are such types of interventions as:
- Stricturoplasty, which is an expansion of the mechanical way of the intestinal lumen to restore patency;
- Proctocolectomy. This operation is performed in the most severe cases of Crohn's disease, when it is necessary to remove the entire large intestine, including the rectum;
- Colectomy is required in cases where only the large intestine has been affected. With this development of the disease, it is removed along the entire length, and the rectum and small intestine are connected together;
- An operation involving the partial resection of the intestine in Crohn's disease is indicated if the patient has a through hole( fistula) formed between the intestinal loops and which is not amenable to conservative treatment.
Since this disease is marked by progressive bowel disease, surgical intervention is required for the patient repeatedly throughout life. The task of the specialist in their implementation is to minimize the extent of resection and preserve as many segments of the intestine as possible.
How to behave after surgery for Crohn's disease?
After the surgical treatment of Crohn's disease, the patient is prescribed a mandatory course of conservative therapy. In the event that the intervention was successful, and there is a positive result of restorative dynamics, the patient has a chance for a long time not to remember the symptoms of this pathology.
The need for mandatory use of drugs will also drop. The main thing for the patient will remain adherence to the correct diet and strict observance of the doctor's recommendations.
Due to the fact that patients who have undergone surgery for digestive organs in Crohn's disease, they may have abnormalities of stool and bloating. Therefore, they are given a diet whose goal will be to maximize their relief. To do this, it is necessary to compose a diet so that the intestine or stomach can digest foods well and quickly.
The advantages of surgery for Crohn's disease are that the patient stops painful and unpleasant symptoms and there is the opportunity to live a full life.