There are several classes of helminths. Nematodes are one of them. Under this name, all round worms( about one million subspecies) are united. Free-living types live in the soil, in fresh and salt waters. Parasitic nematodes live in the body of animals, fish and humans.
What does the nematode look like? Round worms have common anatomical similarities. This is a round, non-segmented body of white color( it can be clearly seen in the photo), the presence of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary and nervous systems. Females are slightly different from males. They are large, female individuals live much longer than males. All roundworms have a dermal-muscular sac, a primary body cavity, a turgor, but the circulatory and respiratory systems are absent. Almost all nematodes have the same development cycle: several stages that allow the larvae to ripen and successfully pass the moult, then there is a stage of puberty and active reproduction, reproduction in roundworms is carried out with the help of laying eggs.
The nematode can be divided into three large groups:
- Geohelminths are representatives of protozoa, in which eggs mature in the soil in the formation of certain climatic conditions.
- Aquanatomata are parasites that live in water.
- Biohelminths are roundworms in which the entire life cycle passes inside the host organism.
Life cycle of nematodes
The life cycle of worms of the class of nematodes passes in several stages: invasive eggs or larvae enter the host organism, where they quickly develop and grow to the size of adult individuals. After this, parasites begin to multiply actively, in the sexual act, as a rule, both females and males participate, males after that die and along with the feces come out. The female of round worms lays eggs. For their maturation( if it's geogland), certain conditions are needed( high temperature from +16 and above, good humidity).Wet land and standing water are an ideal medium for ripening eggs of nematodes and molting their larvae.
There is no need for an external environment for the maturation of eggs of biohelminths, so a round worm - pinworm is very dangerous for humans. The contact path of infection contributes to self-contamination and infection of all who are present next to the patient and live with him together within the boundaries of one living quarters. The photo clearly shows how the cycle of nematode existence takes place.
How can I get nematodosis?
The mechanism of infection with nematodes is extremely simple. Roundworms enter the host's body by the oral route while ignoring or not observing the basic rules of personal hygiene. Human nematodes( ascarids and pinworms) are transmitted from person to person, the household way of infection is common among children of younger preschool and senior school age. Eggs of round worms can bring pets into the house, infection can occur when a person likes to walk barefoot or drink unboiled water. Eggs of nematodes, getting into the stomach, remain legible, they, along with the remains of food, enter the intestine - into the most favorable habitat for them. It is here that the cycle of development of almost all worms begins.
Symptoms of nematodes
The appearance of the first signs of the presence of worm-nematodes is few, who notices. Symptoms of the first initial stages are well disguised as usual catarrhal diseases. The patient can complain of wandering pains, mild nausea, changes in appetite, general weakness. Since, especially during the life of roundworms, the intestine suffers, there is a disorder of the stool, a constant nausea, which often results in vomiting. The walls of the mucous membrane of the hollow organ are injured, inflammation is gradually formed, which leads to the appearance of symptoms characteristic of many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
When a large number of worms begins to concentrate in the intestine, then the host's body begins to signal this more aggressively. Acute allergic reactions erupt in a sick child or adult, symptoms of general intoxication of the body appear. Almost all nematodes actively multiply and rapidly develop. Lack of living space pushes such a type of worms to look for another habitat, which is why the migration of nematodes throughout the body begins. Some of their species are able to settle in the heart, affect the liver and even the brain of the patient. The photo clearly shows how the round worm parasitizes in the human eyeball. When the diseases of the nematode go so far, the working rhythms of all internal systems of the body are disrupted. In this case, there are very different symptoms. If these helminthiases are not treated, serious mental disturbances, and even death of the patient, are possible.
Since the class of nematodes, as already mentioned above, is represented by several types of roundworms, the signs of infection can also be different. So, for example, with the development of enterobiosis( infection with pinworms), the person has an itch around the anus, which increases at night. Its appearance is due to the fact that the female pinworm for egg laying descends into the lowest layers of the large intestine and comes out. She mows eggs and fastens them to the perineum with a special adhesive composition. It is he who provokes the appearance of a characteristic symptom.
Ascaridosis begins with active migration of larvae. Together with the blood flow and lymph flow they easily enter the intestine, the liver, the heart, into the pulmonary arteries into the oral cavity. During the acute phase, the patient is vomiting, together with it, adult nematodes can go out. Catch the ascarids out through the anus. Finding live worms on linen is a characteristic symptom of ascariasis. Outwardly, it is not difficult to distinguish between ascarids and pinworms. Ascarids are worms, the size of which is several times larger than the size of pinworms. The length of the female nematode, for example, can reach up to 40 cm, the male is twice shorter. Children's oyster is a type of small round worms from the class of nematodes, the length of the female does not exceed 12 mm, the male - 5-6 mm.
Trichinosis is characterized by a strong fever, muscle pains, severe swelling of the face, bright red skin rashes. During severe stages, the myocardium and the central nervous system can be affected. As you can see, each type of helminthiasis, provoked by nematodes, has its own clinical picture. A person who knows can understand his state of health, realistically assess the situation and turn to the right doctor for help in time.
Diagnosis of nematodosis
To diagnose invasion and to determine which nematode has caused the development of invasion can only be done laboratory. The doctor will carefully collect all the anamnesis and suggest the patient to undergo an extended laboratory examination. It consists of several tests. Identify nematodes in the host's body:
- Threefold examination of feces for eggs of worms.
- Blood tests to detect the presence of antigens.
- Morphological study.
- Biopsy( in case of trichinella damage to the muscles).
Treatment of nematodosis
Nematode diseases are treated differently. They may include:
- Traditional methods of treatment.
Treatment for nematodes is carried out with the same medication. Depending on what kind of roundworms are sown inside, the dose and course limits for taking these or those tablets vary. The choice of funds is carried out taking into account the severity of the invasion, the age of the patient and his weight. The standard treatment regimens for nematodes look like this:
For the treatment of enterobiasis, preparations with active active substance of direct action are prescribed. It could be Pirantel, Vermox, Vankin and Medamin. In the scheme of treatment of trichocephalosis include Naftamone, Combantrin, Mebendazole, Diphezil. Askaridoz is treated with the same means as enterobiosis. Children are often prescribed oxygen therapy to eliminate the invasion. It is most effective against this type of roundworm. Trichinosis is the most dangerous helminthiasis, which can only be combated with the help of the spirit of preparations: Vermox and Tiabendazole.
Since round worms of the class of nematodes are dangerous parasites, the emphasis in therapeutic schemes is made on the reception of antiparasitic drugs. Almost all of them are highly toxic, so you can not break the dosage. After taking the tablets, it is important to purify the body of those toxins that form with the products of the life of roundworms, and after their death, provoked by treatment. For these purposes, a laxative tablets and microclysters may be prescribed to a sick adult.
But on this the fight with round worms does not end. After their death, some doctors recommend using special rehabilitation programs to minimize the risks of possible complications. Rehabilitation consists of several stages:
- Restoration of immunity.
- Elimination of associated symptoms and diseases.
- Replenishment of nutrients, those that were "stolen" from the host by parasites.
A huge role in the process of early recovery is played by the prevention of nematodes. Many helminthiases come back again and again when certain rules are not observed. The possibility of self-infection is the main danger of roundworms. Prevention requires a comprehensive approach. It implies disinfection of the environment, timely treatment of all infected patients, preventive reception of some antiparasitic drugs or folk remedies. Compliance with personal hygiene and proper cooking.
The use of oxygen therapy( oxygen treatment) is justified when traditional medicines are contraindicated for some reason. The essence of the procedure is that a probe is inserted into the patient's stomach connected to an oxygen cylinder. With the help of such a device, gas is supplied directly to the gastrointestinal tract. For some nematodes( ascaris, for example), oxygen is fatal. Oxygen therapy can not be used when the patient has ulcers or bowel erosions.
National treatment of nematodosis
Folk treatment is not a panacea, despite the fact that some folk remedies have shown effectiveness against worms more than once, such therapy can be only a part of complex treatment. In the early stages, it is possible to expel roundworms from the body with a special diet. It is based on products that can create an unfavorable environment for the habitation of roundworms. This is garlic, onion, ginger. To kill worms help infusions of herbs tansy, wormwood and thyme.
Why is the popular treatment directed against the class of worms to which all nematodes are classified, can not replace the medicament? Because at home it is difficult to find out what uninvited guests have settled inside the body, what stage of the invasion is taking place, what mechanism of action should be used to drive out the parasites. In addition, in the presence of severe forms of invasion, the mass death of roundworms can lead to the development of intestinal obstruction. And this is a very dangerous phenomenon that can provoke a fatal outcome. Incorrect treatment of nematodes can trigger the migration of already adult worms, they can get into other internal systems than completely undermine health. That's why self-medication with official medicine is not welcome.
Knowing what the nematode looks like, what its life cycle is, and what treatment method will eliminate unwanted visitors, you can try to prevent the development of unwanted scenarios.