Tumor pathologies are very common diseases. It is especially dangerous when such pathologies affect the female reproductive system. But the situation can still be corrected if the tumor is detected in a timely manner.
One of the most popular tumoral formations of the uterine body is fibromyoma. What is uterine fibroids?
Fibromyoma of the endometrium is called a hormone-dependent and hormone-mediated tumor, formed from muscle fibers and connective tissues with a predominance of the latter.
Education prefers patients 35-55 years of age and can disappear independently in the menopausal period, although in some women with the onset of menopause, the tumor first increases.
Photo of giant fibroids of the uterus
Small fibromyomatous tumors can last a long time to lead a stable existence, but if a provoking factor( like inflammatory process, gynecologic curettage, etc.) appears, then they begin to grow rapidly.
Code of the disease according to the ICD 10 - D25 - uterine leiomyoma.
Causes and risk factors
For the formation and growth of fibroids of the uterus, it is necessary to have provoking factors.
Among the most common of them are particularly significant:
- Reproductive failure, when a woman for 30 has never yet given birth and did not lactify;
- Presence of past abortions;
- Frequent stressful situations and the psychoemotional stress caused by them;
- Abuse of sunbathing, solarium, long exposure to the sun, prolonged and frequent ultraviolet exposure;
- The presence of inflammatory processes in the appendages and uterine body;
- Prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives;
- Presence of a cystic process in the tissues of the ovaries.
The statistics are that the removal of the uterus is performed mainly for women 40-45 years of age due to inadequate rapid growth of fibroids, large sizes of education and the presence of concomitant pathologies of ovarian or endometrial tissue.
Factors such as diabetes, obesity, metabolic disorders, hereditary predisposition, etc., also adversely affect fibromyomatous tumor.
formation Usually, the tumor has no characteristic manifestations, developing secretly. This fact adversely affects the diagnosis, making it very difficult. Therefore, quite often pathology is found in rather late, neglected stages.
Pains, for example, begin to bother women when fibroids are reaching a serious scale and require surgery.
There are symptomatic manifestations of the presence of uterine fibroids like:
- Too painful menstrual days;
- Presence of vaginal bloody discharge, not related to the monthly;
- Sensations of heaviness and cramping in the abdomen;
- Painful sensations during sexual intercourse, supplemented by rapid urination;
- Irradiation of pain in the lumbar and dorsal region;
- Frequent swelling, flatulence;
- Significant increase in the size of the abdomen;
- Problems with conception, when a woman for a long time can not get pregnant without any apparent reason.
If the tumor behaves quietly - has small dimensions and does not grow, does not hurt, does not disturb the functionality of surrounding tissues, then observational tactics are chosen. Especially often this pattern of pathology is observed in the pre-menopausal period, which is associated with a decrease in the estrogen level.
There are several classifications of fibroids. In accordance with the localization and nature of growth, these tumors are divided into:
- Submucosal - forming under the internal mucous layer of the tumor of the uterine body;
- Interconnected - complex formations that arise in the interconnected space supporting the uterus of ligaments, is difficult to remove, because the risk of damage to blood vessels is great;
- Diffuse - when the tumor affects more than half the area of the uterine body;
- Subserial - when the tumor forms under the outer layer of the uterus;
- Nodal - when several pathological nodules are formed;
- Interstitial - considered the most common, characterized by the location on the uterine walls and a noticeable growth rate.
In addition, specialists distinguish fibromioma formations of simple, proliferating and pre-sarcoma.
Simple formations grow slowly, do not cause anxiety and are amenable to drug treatment. Proliferating fibroids are prone to accelerated growth, but do not contain abnormal cellular structures.
What is the difference from myoma?
As a matter of fact, both formations - both a fibromioma, and a myoma - differ benign character, have identical etiology and proceed similarly to each other. The only difference is in the structure of tumors.
Myoma consists mainly of muscle tissue components, whereas in fibromioma the connective tissue component is predominant.
Generally, fibroids are the formation in which 50% of connective tissue and muscle fibers are present. Such formations develop similarly to myomas, first the muscular tissue is formed, and then the connective tissue structures grow.
Complications of pathology
Fibromyoma requires mandatory treatment or medical supervision, because it is dangerous for the development of various complications.
- Lethal necrosis. Develops due to eating disorders. Necrotizing can be local in nature or the tumor dies completely. This complication is accompanied by severe pain, which is amplified by palpation. The patient is disturbed by vomiting and irritated peritoneum symptoms, hyperthermia, an infectious process may join, which will only complicate the course of the pathology. Treatment is carried out surgically.
- Purulent processes. A rare complication develops usually against a background of tumor necrosis. Similar pathological changes occur with formations of intra-wall or submucosal localization. Accompanied by severe sepsis, hyperthermia and requires emergency surgical treatment.
- Birth of a node. A submucous tumor can be born in the vagina and even beyond its limits. Such tumor nodes grow on a long leg and at birth are accompanied by pulling or cramping-like lumbar pains and in the lower abdomen. This condition is dangerous to eviction of the uterus, therefore it requires urgent surgical intervention.
- Torsion of the legs. This situation is considered to be the most common and is accompanied by sudden lumbar and retroperitoneal soreness, hyperthermia, rectal and dysfunctional dysfunction, etc.
Features in pregnancy
If fibromioma is large enough, it prevents the onset of conception, the cervical canal, tubes, causing ovulatory andmenstrual irregularities.
When pregnancy occurs, it is preserved, however, the patient during the entire period of gestation is under the intensive supervision of the gynecologist.
In such a pregnancy, there is a risk of miscarriage, early delivery, etc.
Labor in such patients is protracted, often the fetus has an incorrect presentation( transverse or pelvic), so most often the birth is performed by caesarean section. Later, lactation and postpartum changes in the uterus can lead to a complete resolution or a significant reduction in fibroids.
For the diagnosis of these tumors, standard procedures are used:
- Gynecological examination;
- Ultrasound examination;
- Diagnostic curettage;
- Cytological and histological studies;
- Laboratory diagnostics;
- Metrography, etc.
How to treat fibroids of the uterus?
After complete examination, the patient is selected the necessary treatment. Doctors are guided by the obtained diagnostic data, the type and nature of the tumor, as well as the degree of development of the fibroomyotic process.
In addition, the desire of the patient in the future to have children is of no less importance. Treatment can be carried out surgically or in a conservative way.
Operation is far from always aimed at total removal of the uterus, so you do not need to fear it. Doctors, on the contrary, try to keep the organs as much as possible.
The most commonly used method is myomectomy, when the removal of education is performed. But such a technique does not guarantee the absence of relapses in the future. If the preservation of the organ is impossible, then it is partially removed( defundation) or total extirpation.
A relatively young method is arterial embolization, involving the artificial blockage of arteries feeding the uterus and tumor. As a result, there is a reverse development of education.
Conservative treatment without surgery
Conservative therapy of uterine fibroids is based on the hormonal method of treatment.
The choice of prescription drugs is determined by the age characteristics of the patient, the degree of imbalance of the hormonal status, the presence of associated pathological processes, etc.
Usually hormone therapy is prescribed for a period of six months, no less. The purpose of such therapy is the elimination of indications for surgical intervention.
Hormonal treatment may include:
- Preparations of a gestagenic group if there are no malfunctions of the menstrual cycle;
- Estrogen-progestational medications, when pathology is characterized by acyclic bleeding in patients younger than
- 45 years of age;
- Atotonadotropona funds;
- Androgen-containing drugs at the age after 45.
Hormone therapy is contraindicated in diabetes, varicose veins and hypertension.
In addition to hormonal drugs, prescribe painkillers, anti-anemia and hemostatic agents, vitamin complexes. If the tumor is large( more than 12 weeks), has a submucous character, has a pronounced clinic, grows rapidly and is complicated by other pathologies, then surgical treatment is indicated.
Widespread use in the treatment of fibroids of the uterus has been given to folk medicine or phytotherapy.
Similar remedies are a good addition to conservative drug therapy, however, they should be conducted with the participation of a specialist. In addition, folk remedies are effective only in the case of asymptomatic flow and small sizes of education.
For prevention, patients are recommended to adhere to the following recommendations:
- Avoid abortion, for which it is recommended to use contraceptives;
- The first birth should be planned before the age of 22 with mandatory breastfeeding;
- The first pregnancy should be preserved, especially in patients with hereditary predispositions to neoplastic diseases;
- Any "female" pathology requires compulsory, timely and qualified therapy;
- Prolonged sunbathing is categorically unacceptable, as is the abuse of the solarium;
- Neglecting an annual gynecological examination can lead to the neglect of the pathological process, then the removal of the uterus can only solve the problem.
Fibromyoma is not a verdict, but in a few cases it can regenerate, acquiring a malignant character. Therefore, if you suspect a violation of women's health, do not delay, you need to be examined by a gynecologist.
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