Cancer is a malignant tumor process that grows from the tissues of the epithelium. These tissues are located not only on the skin surface, as many people mistakenly believe, but also lining the surfaces of the reproductive system, the urinary and airways, the digestive tract, etc.
All these structures communicate in a certain way with the environment, harmful and carcinogenic substances, which increases the probabilitymalignant oncology. There are several types of cancer, but the flat epithelium affects squamous cell carcinoma.
The concept of
A squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that develops from the epithelium of the skin or mucous tissues.
A similar oncological form is characterized by an aggressive current with rapid development.
The oncoprocess starts in the cutaneous or mucous layer, but very quickly spreads to local lymph nodes, neighboring tissues and organic structures, destroying their structure and undermining their activity. As a result, there is a lack of multi-organ scale, leading to death.
What organs amaze?
As already mentioned, squamous cell carcinoma usually affects organs that have a flat epithelium.
Similar structures are present in various systems and organs:
- On the surface of the skin;
- In pulmonary structures;
- In the cervix and vagina;
- Larynx and esophagus;
- In the language;
- Urinary bladder, etc.
The most common is squamous cell lung cancer, followed by malignant cervical oncology. Ploskokletochnaya oncology occupies one of the first places in terms of prevalence, therefore it is a serious problem.
Ploskokletochnaya oncology is classified according to several principles.
In terms of prevalence, the cancer is invasive and microinvasive.
The degree of cellular differentiation distinguishes between keratinizing, non-keratinizing and low-grade squamous cell carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma is also classified by stages, tumor form, etc.
Squamous keratinizing cancer
This oncoloform is characterized by slow development and growth. Its main difference is the presence of differentiated oncocells, from which this cancerous tumor consists. It is formed from "pearls" - bounded structures that have a grayish-white glossy surface.
A similar form of squamous cell cancer from the prognostic point of view is conditionally considered most favorable.
A keratinized cancer can have a highly- or moderately differentiated form. And with the increase in the degree of differentiation, the likelihood of predictions also increases, because such formations progress much more slowly.
Another characteristic manifestation of differentiated squamous cell carcinoma is the presence of scaly keratinized particles located on the outside of the formation and forming a yellowish edging.
A squamous form of squamous cell oncology is almost always formed on the surface of the skin, although in exceptional cases it can be found in other structures of the body.
Squamous nonkeratinized cancer
A nonkeratinous form of squamous cell carcinoma constitutes an accumulation of undifferentiated cellular structures, which is why it has the highest malignancy, aggressive course and rapid progression.
A similar cancerous form is capable of forming on any organ, but still more often it occurs on mucous tissues. On skin integuments, this oncogene is detected only in 1 case out of 100, i.e. in 10%.
A squamous cell oncology of a low-grade type has much in common with sarcomatous formations, since it consists of spindle-shaped cellular structures.
This cancer is characterized by increased malignancy and rapid progression.
Microphotograph of low-grade squamous cell carcinoma
For low-grade squamous cell carcinoma, localization is predominantly found on mucous tissues of various organic structures.
Iron-squamous squamous cell oncology is usually formed on organic structures that have, in addition to the mucous membranes, a branched glandular network, for example, in the uterus or lung tissue.
Tumor, in addition to the squamous epithelial component, also contains glandular structures, which negatively affects the oncoprocess flow.
Most often, this squamous cell carcinoma is localized in the tissues of the uterus, characterized by aggressive and rapid progression, has unfavorable prognosis.
The high invasiveness index indicates the ability of the oncology process to grow into adjacent tumor structures and local lymph nodes.
Invasive cancer has less favorable predictions than non-invasive, but with early detection, it lends itself well to specific complex antitumor therapy.
It is difficult to pinpoint the causes of squamous cell oncology. Of considerable importance in this process is the pathologically low resistance to cancer cells and the presence of specific damaging factors such as:
- Radioactive exposure( in persons engaged in nuclear production, when using diagnostic procedures with the use of X-rays, gamma rays, etc.);
- Aggressive ecological environment( polluted atmosphere close to industrial enterprises, as well as in large metropolitan areas);
- Abuse of ultraviolet( frequent and long hours in the sun or in the solarium causes genetic mutations that provoke the appearance of abnormal malignant cells);
- Nicotine addiction and alcoholism;
- Genetic predisposition;
- Taking immunosuppressive medications that depress immunity( Mercaptopurine or Azathioprine);
- Unhealthy eating habits;
- Availability of industrial hazards( from miners, chimney sweepers, metallurgists or woodworking industries);
- Infectious lesions( HIV or HPV);
- Age features( after 65).
In addition, all types of precancerous skin conditions like Bowen's syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosa, Paget's disease, skin horn or senile keratosis, contact dermatitis, keratoacanthoma, etc., also increase the likelihood of squamous cell carcinoma.
Clinical manifestations of squamous cell oncology are caused by specific localization of the tumor process, however, all types of such cancer have some common characteristics.
Squamous cell carcinoma can develop in several clinical forms: infiltrative-ulcerative, papillary or mixed.
- The infiltrative-ulcerative or endophytic clinical form of squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by the presence of ulcers of the primary nodal focus, on which a large ulcer is formed. It is characterized by irregular outlines, the edges are denser and located above the center, the bottom of the ulcer is whitish, rough and exudes stench. The tumor process grows and spreads invasively, that is, it grows deep into the tissues, so the outward appearance of the ulcer practically does not increase. But the muscular and bony tissues, nearby structures, etc.
- The papillary or exophytic clinical squamous oncogene is distinguished by the presence of a clearly distinct from the neighboring structures of the nodal focus, which gradually grows, acquiring ever larger dimensions. As a result, a tumor of a red-brown hue, similar to cauliflower, is formed. It has uneven, uneven surfaces with a clearly visible notch in the center. Similar tumors happen on a pedicle or on a wide base, can gradually grow and pass into an infiltrative-ulcerous clinical form.
The remaining clinical signs are due to the location of the tumor process. For example, squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by the presence of a painful and itchy tumor, bleeding, with swelling and redness around the outbreak.
Lung cancer of this type is accompanied by a hoarse voice and an incurable cough, causeless weight loss and painful sensations in the chest, mucous and bloody sputum discharge and constant hyperthermia.
And for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterus is characterized by the presence of uterine bleeding and leucorrhoea, soreness in the abdomen and pelvis, giving back and crotch, chronic fatigue and general weakness of the body.
The development and progress of squamous cell carcinoma occurs in several stages:
- Zero stage - characterized by the absence of a primary tumor site, metastasis in the lymph nodes and other organs;
- The first stage - when the tumor has dimensions up to 5 cm, and metastases in lymph nodes and other organic structures are still absent;
- The second stage is a tumor larger than 5 cm or it has any size and sprouted into the nearest structures, although no metastasis is present;
- The third stage is defined at any tumor size in the presence of lymph node metastasis, but in other organs there is no metastasis;
- The fourth stage is identified if the tumor is of any size, can germinate into adjacent tissues, with or without lymph node metastasis, but with mandatory metastases to other distant organic structures.
Diagnostic studies of squamous cell oncology include the following procedures:
- Radiographic Diagnostics;
- Scanning microscopy of laser confocal type;
- CT, MRI;
- Biopsy with histology;
- Laboratory diagnostics with the detection of oncomarkers, etc.
The oncomarker of the squamous cell type of oncology is the SCC antigen. If its concentration in the blood exceeds 1.5 ng / ml, then the patient has a high probability of such a cancer.
In such cases, the patient is given a thorough endoscopic and tomographic examination to detect the localization of the cancerous focus.
Treatment and prognosis of a tumor
Any arrangement of squamous cell oncology involves the use of the following therapeutic techniques:
- Chemotherapy - involves the use of antitumor drugs;
- Radiation therapy - based on the use in the treatment of gamma-ray irradiation;
- Surgical intervention - involves the removal of the tumor itself and metastatic lymph nodes.
For small superficial tumors, alternative therapies such as electrocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, or cryotherapy may be used. After receiving the treatment, the patient periodically visits the oncologist to avoid relapse.
The predictions for squamous cell cancer are determined by the location of the oncoprocess and its stage:
- cervical cancer in the first stage of 90% survival rate, the second stage - 60%, the third - 35%, the fourth - 10%;
- Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by survival at the first stage - about 35-40%, on the second - 15-30%, on the third - 10%;
- Skin cancer in I-III stage - 60% survival rate, in 4 stages - 40%.
Early detection of tumors is usually easier to treat and have more positive predictions than advanced cancers.
Video Removal of Squamous Cell Carcinoma: