The human intestine can be divided into two main sections - thin and thick. Divided with a thin section of the mucous septum, the large intestine is fundamentally different from it in structure and performs completely different functions. Containing about one and a half kilograms of various microorganisms and performing the functions of water absorption, it is an extremely important organ for the normal functioning of the entire human body.
Inflammation of the inner mucosa is called colitis. Depending on the speed of the colitis bowel disease, it can be acute, flowing violently, and chronic, characterized by a long and sluggish course. Depending on the nature of the inflammation of the intestine, colitis can be:
- is ischemic, when the blood supply of the intestine is disturbed.
Regardless of the causes of colitis bowel disease, it is based on mucosal damage. The main signs of the disease include abdominal pain, which can be combined with flatulence, bloated stomach. In this case, diarrhea or constipation is noted, and sometimes with severe form - unsteadiness of the stool. Depending on the nature of colitis colitis, there are other specific symptoms of the pathological process.
Among all gastroenterological problems, intestinal colitis is almost half of all those who have complained of dysfunctional gastrointestinal complaints. Basically, intestinal colitis is common among men aged 40-60 years, and for women the age range is much wider and ranges from 20 to 60 years. Among the main risk factors are:
- weakened immunity;
- inadequate intake of plant foods with a predominance of spicy food in the diet;
- residual phenomena of autoimmune diseases;
- stresses, nervous breakdowns;
- anatomical features of the abnormal structure of the intestinal vessels;
When determining what is dangerous for intestinal colitis, first of all you should pay attention to prolonged constipation, which can lead to the development of cancer. Disease ulcerative colitis in severe form leads to internal bleeding, deformation of the lumen of the organ with further intestinal obstruction, perforation and ulcers. Untimely treatment leads to the defeat of the stomach, liver, pancreas, the entire tract and has serious consequences for human health. For example, the uncontrolled development of ischemic colitis in the gangrenous form due to the death of tissues and heavy bleeding leads to the death of a person.
What are colitis of the intestines?
According to morphological signs, colitis is classified as:
- is a steroid.
The ulcerative form of colitis is characterized by a large number of symptoms and ulcers on the surface of the mucosa. In this fibrinous form is characterized by the defeat of the vasculature, proliferation of connective tissue of the intestinal wall with the formation of necrotic defects. In catarrhal form, gross lesions of the inner layers of the intestine are absent in inflammation of the mucosa. The presence of local sites of constriction, provoked by increased activity of the nervous system is characteristic of a spastic species. The steroid variant of the disease is formed with an imbalance of sex hormones, normalizing their activity, it is possible to achieve its complete cure.
The pathology of ethnological factors is divided into:
- is ischemic;
- is pseudomembranous.
Morphological picture of granulomata of the colon, called otherwise Crohn's disease, is a protrusion and indentations with inflammation zones in certain areas of the mucosa. Ischemic colitis, which develops with a lack of microcirculation, leads to cell death due to the lack of oxygen for their normal functioning. As a result of tissue necrosis and poisoning of the organism, a lethal outcome is possible.
Infectious type of the disease colitis of intestines is provoked by enterobacteria, salmonella, shigella, ingested with food and poor quality water. Morphological signs of pseudomembranous colitis are deposits in the wall of the colon of a special protein. Pathological changes are caused by taking antibiotics, allergic reaction and autoimmune disease. Poisoning with chemicals coming in with food leads to a toxic type of poisoning.
Depending on the location of the inflammation focus, colitis is divided into tiflites, transversites and proctosigmoiditis. Tiflitis, as a rule, develops after the onset of changes in the small intestine( enteritis).In women, development is associated with inflammation of the ovaries. Severe pain on the right side of the ileum is similar to pain in appendicitis. The pathology of the transverse colon, transversitis, is due to stagnation of stool during passage through the transverse colon, constantly poisoning the mucous membrane. The development of proctosigmoiditis is most often associated with infection. This pathology is typical mainly for the elderly.
The clinical picture of colon disease is basically the same for all of its types and species. The main syndrome of colitis is abdominal pain and a loose stool with an admixture of mucus. Syndrome IBS( irritable bowel) provokes the development of colitis IBS and its distinctive features are abdominal pain, diarrhea lasting more than six hours, discomfort. There is also a syndrome of the left hypochondrium( angulis).It is a separate inflammation of the spleen angle of the transverse rim, very often, especially when exacerbated, manifests itself as a metallic taste in the mouth, nausea, a decrease in appetite. Asthenoneuroscenosis in the long course of the disease is characterized by rapid fatigue, poor sleep, headache.
Causes of intestinal colitis
Despite the large spread of the disease, there is no consensus on the causes of colitis of the intestine to date. Assumptions about risk factors are suggested, and the classification of the disease is based on the expected causes of the onset. Infectious-type causes are food poisoning, intestinal infections and other infectious agents, such as tuberculosis, dysentery, microbacteriosis, salmonella. Most often this develops an acute form.
Non-infectious colitis can provoke gross violations of the rules of healthy eating, poisoning with chemicals, taking antibiotics and other medications for a long time. Congenital pathologies, genetic mutations, exposure to radiation, disturbances in the blood supply associated with atherosclerosis of the inferior mesenteric artery, also contribute to the development of adverse processes.
Among the causes of the disease, there may be mechanical damage to the rectum with frequent enemas and the installation of suppositories, allergic reactions, tissue poisoning in kidney disease, gout, dysbiosis. In addition, colitis can be a secondary disease caused by pancreatitis, hepatitis, gastritis, cholecystitis, IBS.With a congenital anomaly of development in the form of an additional sigma loop, colitis of the upper intestinal loops can develop.
Diagnosis of intestinal colitis
Diagnosis begins with the analysis of patient complaints and physical examination. Given that the main symptoms of the presence of the pathological process in the colon are pain and stool disorder, the doctor's questions are aimed at clarifying the nature and duration of these manifestations. In addition, questions may be asked about lifestyle, the use of unusual diets, vascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol.
To exclude the possibility of infection by parasites, questions may concern a recent trip, drinking from unverified sources of water. Among the clarifying questions may be questions about taking medications recently, the presence of other complaints. When examining the abdomen, the focus is on increasing the volume and pain during palpation of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. When rectal examination of the rectum, the possibility of a tumor or edema of the mucosa is studied.
The next stage for the establishment of the diagnosis of intestinal colitis is laboratory examination of feces and a complete blood test. If it is not possible to establish the specific causes of the disease, colonoscopy is performed, taking material to study to exclude malignant formation. Some types of colitis, such as lymphocytic and collagen( microscopic), can be determined only by biopsy of the affected area.
To assess anatomical changes and determine the location of the lesion of the mucosa, do an abdominal radiography with a barium enema. The most accurate definition of the type of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon and the degree of its damage is provided by computed tomography. The choice of a specific method, how to determine colitis colitis, depends on the severity and speed of the pathological process.