Colloid cyst of both thyroid gland and brain: causes, symptoms, treatment

A colloid cyst is an entity localized either in the thyroid gland or in the brain. Neoplasm does not apply to malignant, but with its growth in the ventricle of the brain can cause serious complications, which in turn increase the likelihood of a fatal outcome.

Treatment is selected based on the location of the colloid cyst, its size and symptoms of pathology.

The concept of

A colloid cyst is a tumor consisting of a gelatinous liquid enclosed in a tight capsule formed by a connective tissue.

The formation of the brain is almost always located in the area of ​​the third ventricle, in its anterior-upper part. Dimensions of the cyst vary greatly, sometimes a dense spherical node occupies virtually the entire cavity of the ventricle.

A colloid cyst occupying one part of the thyroid gland differs mainly in a favorable course. But it does not exclude the possibility of her malignancy.

With zero degree of development of the thyroid cyst, a low-symptom course of pathology is noted. At a secondary degree, internal changes already occur, which can cause suppuration of the tumor and neck deformation.

Causes of tumor

According to the scientists, colloid cysts of the brain appear as a consequence of the disruption of the formation of the nervous tissue during the period when the fetus develops in the mother's body.

In the embryo, before the hemispheres of the brain begin to form, there is a rudiment of neural tissue in the form of an outgrowth, normally it should completely resolve at the time of the birth of the baby.

But sometimes this does not happen, and the remnants of the nervous tissue begin to gradually develop a jelly-like secret, eventually it is covered with a capsule.

Negatively, intrauterine fetal development reflects infections transmitted by a woman, severe toxicosis, bad habits, poor environmental conditions and a number of other factors.

Initially, the colloidal cyst of the brain in a child has only a few millimeters in size, but under the influence of a number of provoking stimuli, the neoplasm begins to grow rapidly. Provoke rapid growth of the cyst of the ventricle of the brain can prolonged stress, chronic fatigue, obesity, trauma, bad habits.

The causes of the formation of colloid cysts of the thyroid gland are microcirculation, degeneration and hyperplasia of the gland follicles. This is facilitated by:

  • Insufficient level of iodine.
  • Long-term psychoemotional overload.
  • Defective sleep, violation of the regime of the day.
  • Increased physical activity.
  • Acid-base imbalance in the body.
  • Women have frequent pregnancies.
  • Irradiation with X-rays.
  • Smoking.
  • Accommodation in areas with a very cold climate.

Symptoms of

The onset of the formation of the colloid cyst of the thyroid gland remains unnoticed, since the symptoms of pathology are completely absent during this period. The person begins to notice changes in his state of health only when the node starts to increase continuously in diameter.

At this time, patients complain about:

  • Almost constant swelling in the throat.
  • Difficulty in swallowing saliva and food.
  • Changing the timbre of the voice and making it difficult to breathe in and out.
  • Increased body temperature to low-grade figures.
  • Neck deformation.
  • Pain in the thyroid gland.

The colloid cyst is not always harmless. It is impossible to exclude the possibility of developing an inflammatory process, which can result in suppuration of the formation. This leads to the appearance of symptoms of intoxication and to the risk of infection of the blood.

Cysts of large size can cause thyrotoxicosis - a condition manifested by increased production of hormones. In this case, the person has excessive sweating, there are attacks of palpitation, and a strong irritability develops.

Symptoms of colloid cysts begin to appear when a fluid accumulates in the ventricle due to a worsening of the outflow of the cerebrospinal fluid. Develops a hydrocephalic syndrome, manifested as:

  • Headache, which practically does not decrease under the action of analgesics. At the peak of pain, severe nausea occurs, which can be accompanied by vomiting.
  • Rapid decrease in visual function, nystagmus and doubling of subjects in the eyes.
  • Memory loss.
  • Extraneous noise in the ears.
  • Frequent dizziness.
  • Violation of gait.
  • Urinary incontinence.
  • Tremor limbs.
  • A violation of coordination.

In most cases, severe symptoms begin to appear when the size of the cyst reaches a half centimeter in diameter.

Cyst of the right lobe of the thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is an organ consisting of two lobes. The right one is somewhat larger, which is associated with the fact that it is formed earlier in the fetus in comparison with the left lobe. It is this in medicine that explains why the thyroid cysts most often affect its right share.

Right-hand education is usually benign and it rarely grows too large. Characteristic for cysts, the symptoms of the disease appear when the formation reaches at least 6 mm in diameter.

Difficult swallowing, uncomfortable sensations in the throat, soreness - all these can be signs of a colloid cyst.

The rapid growth of the cyst provokes the development of hyperthyroidism, which in the initial stage can be manifested by hair loss, dyspepsia, dehydration, exophthalmos.

Palpation of a single cyst of the right lobe is possible when its dimensions reach three millimeters. When the size of the formation is more than 1 cm, histological examination of the material taken by biopsy is shown. Cysts less than 6 mm in diameter are treated first by conservative methods, the patient must be under observation and periodically pass tests for hormones.

With the timely detection of small right cysts, drug therapy and certain diet therapy lead to resorption of formations in 80% of cases.

Cyst of the left lobe of the thyroid gland

The cyst of the left lobe of the thyroid gland is less common. If the size of the formation is less than one centimeter, the patient does not need conservative or surgical treatment.

But it is necessary to track the growth of the cyst, if it starts to increase, then it is possible to perform sclerosing of the tumor.

This procedure consists of puncturing the cyst, emptying the cavity with the liquid and introducing sclerosant, a substance that promotes the adhesion of the tumor walls.

If after sclerosing the growth of the cyst begins again, then its surgical removal is prescribed. The type of neoplasm of the left lobe is established by performing ultrasound, biopsy, hormone analyzes.

It is believed that when the functioning of the left lobe is increased due to the growing cyst, the compensatory mechanism is activated and the right lobe begins to produce less hormones. This explains the favorable course of most colloid cysts.

Tumor in a child

Colloid cysts formed in the thyroid gland of young children constitute one percent of all pathologies of this organ. Most often, cysts are formed due to congenital anomalies in the development of organ tissues.

The probability of development of thyroid nodules is increased in those children whose parents have a history of the disease of this organ.

Predisposing factors for the development of a colloid cyst in a child are:

  • Iodine deficiency.
  • Long-term psychoemotional overload.
  • Poisoning, causing chronic intoxication.
  • Diseases accompanied by hormonal imbalance.
  • Injury to the neck.
  • Prolonged exposure to too high or low temperatures.
  • Poor environmental conditions in the place of residence.

In children, colloid cysts are manifested in the throat, which leads to the development of cough. The kid can complain of the sensation of a foreign object in the throat, often in sick children the temperature rises.

These symptoms are similar in manifestations to colds, but unlike them they do not pass a long time. A distinctive feature of colloid cysts of the thyroid gland in children is considered to be the rapid progression of neoplasms, in adults they grow more slowly.

Diagnosis

If the doctor suspects having a colloid cyst in his thyroid gland on the basis of complaints from the patient, then at first he performs an external examination and palpation of the organ.

Palpation can reveal one or more nodules, after which the following instrumental examination methods are assigned:

  • ultrasound. Scanning of the thyroid gland shows the size of the tumor, its location, the clarity of the borders.
  • Fine needle biopsy. The puncture of the detected node is necessary to collect the material for histology. Puncture also determines the signs of suppuration and can be one of the methods of treatment - with biopsy, all the colloidal fluid is pumped out and this often leads to the fact that the walls of the capsule of formation fall and coalesce with each other.
  • Computer tomography is prescribed if the cyst reaches a large size.
  • Bronchoscopy is prescribed if symptoms of compression of neighboring structures occur.
  • Blood test for thyroid hormones shows their level, which allows to exclude the decrease or increase in thyroid function.

When determining a cyst located in the brain, an MRI or CT scan is prescribed. Survey data establish the size and localization of the formation, usually the ventricular cyst overlaps the Monroe's opening, which causes the development of hydrocephalus.

Treatment of

formation Small thyroid cysts begin to be treated with iodine preparations and, if necessary, thyroid hormones.

A special diet rich in seafood and dishes containing an increased amount of iodine helps to cope with education.

If an inflammation of the suppuration is detected during the examination, antibacterial therapy is necessary.

Some cysts drop and do not grow after puncturing and sclerosing. But often there is a relapse of education, and this is considered a reason for surgical removal of the tumor.

The main indications for the purpose of the operation are the large size of the forming node, the constant accumulation of fluid in the capsule, the compression of a number of structures located along the thyroid.

When a ventricular cyst is detected, surgical intervention is indicated. Now there is an opportunity to use minimally invasive methods of treatment, which significantly increases the chances of no complications, both during the operation itself and during the recovery period. Minimally invasive intervention is carried out with the help of an endoscope and under the control of a computer tomography.

Forecast

How will the colloidal cyst of the brain affect the health and health of the patient depends primarily on its size. The minimal diameter of the cystic formation almost never causes any symptoms.

If the treatment of a steadily growing cyst is not treated, then the prognosis for the patient is unfavorable.

Developing hydrocephalus not only significantly reduces efficiency, but also leads to pathologies of the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Memory is severely impaired and early dementia develops. Acute blockage of the outflow of liquor leads to coma and death.

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