The patient, who is in a situation of very limited physical activity, lies in wait for a lot of accompanying troubles. One of them is the probability of decubitus. And this article will tell you about how bedsores look, what care they require, what are the stages and treatment of decubitus, and about the prognosis for patients.
Features of the disease
The disease can occur at any age and does not depend on the patient's sex. Statistics show that, nevertheless, more than half of people who have had bedsores belong to the elderly age group. Of course, this is due to the reduced recovery capabilities of the body in this period.
And most likely such a problem will overtake a person weakened by the underlying illness. The risk zone also includes people who, in addition, also have weight with deviations from the norm. And the weight and weight of the patient are equally adversely affected by the situation.
Below you will find photos of the initial and subsequent stages of pressure sores.
Photo of decubitus stages
About decubitus on heels, buttocks, coccyx and other places read below.
Localization of pathology
The areas where pathology is formed are determined by the protruding parts that appear when lying.
- If a person is more in a supine position, then this can be:
- area of the cone,
- protruding vertebrae,
- During prolonged lying on the side, a lesion in the form of pressure sores can be covered:
- thigh area,
- When lying on the abdomen possible lesions:
What is pressure sores and how to warn them will be told by this video:
The factors that cause the disease:
- When the patient is lying in one position for a long time in the points where the greatest pressure is created on the skin and tissues underneath,forced deterioration of blood circulation. As a result, tissues feel oxygen starvation and nutritional deficiency, which can lead to necrotic phenomena.
- People who have a need to stay in bed, as a result of illness, have lowered immunity. This fact contributes to the creation of foci with inflammatory processes where there are prerequisites for this.
- Insufficient care for a lying person can serve as the reason that he will have bedsores. This is facilitated by lying in one posture for more than two hours and wrong actions with the first signs of pressure sores, inadequate hygiene of the patient.
Symptoms of pressure sores
The signs of decubituses depend on the depth of development of the negative process caused by the disease. A consistent description of the symptoms of decubitus, beginning with the earliest symptoms and including those that occur with further, if not immediately taken measures, deeper processes of tissue damage.
- Redness of individual zones on the body. The area is in the place of contact of the body with the bed with a long lying in one pose. If, when pressing on the reddened area with a finger does not leave a pale trail, then we can say that in this place begins bedsore.
- Another sign of the problem will be the fact that reddening with a change of posture does not go right away. At this stage, pain can be felt in the affected area, signaling a problem, or there may be no pain factor.
- The affected area acquires a swollen appearance.
- There may be blisters.
- Violation of the integrity of the skin leads to inflammation on the skin, the appearance of pus, ulcers.
- The process of tissue damage captures deeper layers, down to the bones.
- Possible entry of infection into wounds, sepsis.
The presence of pressure sores and, at what stage the process is, is determined by visual inspection of the patient. No other diagnostic methods are indicated for the problem.
The exception is when the pressure sores are already in a purulent process. To determine the possible infection of inflamed sites, a biopsy method is used. This method makes it possible, when confirming the presence of infection, to establish an infectious agent.
Now let's find out how to treat pressure sores, and what are the rules for treating them.
The video below will describe the treatment of decubitus more:
In the early stages, bedsores can be treated much more than when the process has reached a severe pathology. Therefore, it is important to notice the violation as early as possible and begin to provide assistance.
The patient should be rotated frequently, so that a zone does not form. In a place of stable redness, do not massage, but knead the skin around it. At this stage, all the rules of care are observed, so that the skin does not break its integrity and the inflammatory processes do not start.
For creams, ointments and other remedies for bedsores read below.
Circle from bedsores
The following agents are used:
- preparations, improving microcirculation in tissues;
- creams with a hydrophilic base,
- therapeutic oils, including camphor oil.
More details on how to treat bedsores in bedridden patients, will tell you special material.
If bedsores already have suppurative processes, and the wound has dead tissue, then cleaning of this focus is required. Without purification from necrotic masses it is impossible to stop the development of the pathological process. This procedure is performed by the surgeon.
Prevention of disease
Measures to prevent bedsores are very important. The emergence of these problems occurs quickly, but the situation is not so easy to fix. Especially if time is wasted and the purulent process has already begun.
If the patient is in a situation of restriction of movements or is completely immobilized, it is important to perform the following care measures:
- at least every two hours to help him to change his posture,
- if the patient experiences involuntary urination, diapers should be used and the perineums washed, not permitting the occurrence of diaper rash;
- reddened areas should not be massaged to improve blood circulation in this area, blot out the area around the redness;
- it is necessary to make sure that the surface of the bed is flat without wrinkles, it is also important that there are no gross seams in the clothes;
- patient should be given a sufficient amount of drinking and vitamin, with protein content, food;
- in time should conduct hygienic procedures for cleaning the skin, especially if the patient has increased sweating;
- should use mattresses from decubitus and special pads under areas where bedsores are indicated.
For the risk of complications from bedsores, see the doctors' reviews below.
Mattress against pressure sores
If the processes in bedsores reached development before severe forms - purulent wounds, necrosis of tissues to deep levels, the consequences can be very undesirable:
- contact osteomyelitis,
- purulent arthritis,
- increases the risk of skin cancer,
The earlier you start treating the pathology caused by bedsores, the easier it will be to achieve success. With persistent and correct care to restore health and get rid of bedsores at any stage of their progression.
If you have to apply a surgical procedure, then the appearance can be corrected with the participation of a plastic surgeon. But if there is a sepsis, then this can lead to death.
On the prevention of decubitus in a patient with stroke will tell the video below: