Mitral valve insufficiency 1, 2, 3 and 4 degrees: treatment, prognosis, symptoms

Heart health depends on whether there are congenital anomalous changes in its structure. However, not everyone knows that smoldering foci of infection can also provoke heart disease. There are other diseases that can trigger this.

Knowledge of what affects the activity of the heart, what signs of the onset of the pathological process will help in time to seek help from a doctor and avoid a worsening of the situation.

Features of the disease

Nature laid that the flow of blood from the left atrium through the valve into the corresponding ventricle has no return. Violations of various kinds make it possible, with a push of blood( systole), to go some part of its volume back to the atrium. Anomaly of this kind can be detected at any age. For all age categories, pathology has the same causes and manifestations. Violation refers to heart defects, which occur very often.

Mitral failure is, in other words, a valve that is designed to allow blood from the left atrium to enter the appropriate vent

ricle and prevent it from reversing, does not fully cope with the task. The reasons why this happens are diverse.

A vice can be congenital or appear as a result of negative changes. Then it is classified as acquired vice.

The most common concomitant problem is aortic heart defects and narrowing of the mitral valve. These complementary disorders can be the patient all at once or one of the options.

Pathology can develop at different rates.

Mitral insufficiency( scheme)

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mitral insufficiency degree

Forms of

Chronic form is revealed over time as a result of:

  • changes in the tissues of the heart structures as a consequence of diseases,
  • development of pathology due to abnormal features of the congenital nature,
  • if valve replacement was performed - possible disruption of the implant structure.

The acute form of pathology manifests itself in a short time. To this case, crisis situations are cited:

  • myocardial infarction,
  • rupture of valves due to infective endocarditis,
  • other acute conditions.

The following video contains detailed information about mitral insufficiency, given in an accessible form:

Degrees

The disorder is classified by the level of return of blood volume. Degrees:

  • 1st. The problem is not very pronounced. The volume of blood in its reverse stroke with the thrust of the ventricle( systole) reaches the surface of the valve. The situation does not cause a malfunction in the heart and refers to the norm.
  • 2nd. The progression of blood to the atrium with respect to the mitral valve is about one and a half centimeters. Violation is considered a moderate deviation from the norm.
  • 3rd. Return of blood reaches the middle line of the atrium. This abnormal movement of blood is attributed to a pronounced disorder.
  • 4th. When the blood in its reverse movement reaches the upper part of the atrium. The situation is related to a severe heart attack.

Causes of mitral valve insufficiency

Regurgitation( return of blood) is caused by causes inside the body:

  1. The problem can be associated with such functional disorders:
    • Tendon filaments, which serve as a connecting link between the heart muscle and the papillary muscles, are cut off or stretched.
    • The muscles that are responsible for the movement of valve flaps( papillary) have changed their tone, and now it does not correspond to the norm.
    • The ring to which the valve flaps are connected was stretched.
    • The ventricle of the left half increased in volume.
  2. The return of blood may be due to the functional inferiority of the valve itself. The bicuspid design at closing does not provide a dense closing of the leaflets.

Congenital ailment

mitral insufficiency In the case of a variant of mitral insufficiency from birth, the factors that could affect the development of the fetus during pregnancy are:

    • stressful situations,
    • adverse environmental ecology,
    • contact with substances whose actions are harmful to the body;
    • effect of ionizing radiation,
    • use of tablets without consulting a specialist.

Consequence of advanced diseases

Mitral insufficiency happens as a consequence of the transferred diseases:

  • Tumor process, which prevents ventricular release.
  • Damage or pathological change of elements in the structure of the heart due to:
    • myocardial infarction,
    • myocarditis,
    • dilated cardiomyopathy,
    • rheumatism,
    • infective endocarditis,
    • of lupus erythematosus.

Next we will tell you about the signs and symptoms of mitral valve insufficiency.

Symptoms of

  • In the body, the correct distribution of blood is disturbed, so the patient feels weak performance, a decline in strength.
  • Stagnant phenomena in the blood supply to the lungs are manifested by shortness of breath.
  • The process that contributed to valve damage can disrupt the state of the heart muscle. As a result, arrhythmia occurs.
  • Congestion of blood in the lungs initiates cough. At the onset of the disease, it is dry. Later there are sputum with the presence of veins of blood.

Next, we will consider methods for diagnosing mitral valve insufficiency.

Diagnosis

The doctor analyzes the patient's symptoms, asks about the history of the disease and the presence of such problems with relatives. After that, he chooses the methods of examining the patient.

  • Echocardiography is a method that will determine the possibility of returning the volume of blood to the atrium by the state of functional structures. When conducting Doppler echocardiography, one can see whether there is regurgitation during systole.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging allows you to see the image of the heart with all the structural details.
  • Catheterization - it is possible to measure pressure in individual chambers of the heart. These indicators make it possible to establish mitral insufficiency.
  • A phonocardiogram complements and updates a patient's examination using a stethoscope. It allows to determine the noise in the mitral valve region during the sending of the ventricle to the aorta( systole).
  • Electrocardiogram - makes it possible to study the violation of heart rhythms.
  • Blood test - shows if there is an inflammatory process in the body.
  • Coronary cardiography is a method of tracing the state of blood vessels with a colorant. It depicts the movement of blood in the heart and blood vessels in the image.
  • Radiography is a picture of the chest area. Determine the change in the size and shape of the heart.

Treatment of

If mitral insufficiency is up to the second degree, then often this situation does not require any help. It is important to cure the disease that triggered the impairment, which led to mitral insufficiency.

Therapeutic

  • Prescribe treatment courses to prevent the development of infectious processes.
  • Recommended hardening procedures.
  • Physiotherapy treatment.
  • The direction of care is chosen to suppress the pathology that caused a negative change in the heart.
  • The doctor sends to the sanatorium-resort treatment, where there is a necessary specialization.

Medicated

mitral failure treatment If there are complications associated with the return of blood to the atrium, then drugs are used to maintain the patient's condition.

This:

  • potassium preparations - maintain myocardial state,
  • diuretics - to avoid edema,
  • nitrates - to improve blood supply,
  • cardiac glycosides - alleviate the condition in case of heart failure.

Operation

In the case of development of pathology to the third and fourth degrees, surgical intervention is recommended. With the help of a radical operation according to the indications in a particular case, the

  • is corrected for defects in the structure by means of plastic,
  • replacing the valve.

If the pathology is severe and the patient's condition is not possible for surgical intervention, his health is maintained with the help of drugs and therapeutic procedures.

More details on how the operation takes place in mitral heart failure, tells the video below:

Prevention of the disease

If we talk about the prevention of congenital insufficiency of the mitral valve, then during the gestation of the child it is necessary to exclude any harmful influence on it:

  • is not in the zone,where there may be ionizing radiation;
  • do not come in contact with harmful chemicals,
  • stay in a location with a good ecological situation.

To exclude the appearance of the acquired disease, observe:

  • in time to treat infectious diseases;do not allow smoldering foci of infection;
  • prevent the appearance of other pathologies that can cause mitral insufficiency;
  • to lead a healthy lifestyle,
  • eliminate acute stressful situations,
  • give the body a feasible systematic load, for example: walking, swimming.

Complications of

mitral insufficiency symptoms Possible:

  • Pulmonary hypertension,
  • electrical impulse between the cardiac divisions may be disrupted,
  • atrial fibrillation, and there may be other rhythm disturbances;
  • inflammation in the inner shells of the heart muscle,
  • heart failure.

On the predictions for the correct treatment of mitral valve insufficiency, 1, 2, 3 degrees, we describe in conclusion of the article.

Forecast

The outlook depends on several components:

  • heart muscle condition,
  • how realistic to heal the disease that caused the pathology;its weight;
  • degree of abnormal disruption in the operation of the valve.

With mitral insufficiency of the third degree, heart failure may develop. Since the introduction of the diagnosis, almost all patients have lived more than five years. Ten years and more than 4/5 of the total number of patients with such a problem live.

With the second degree of development of pathology, patients for several years can not feel health disorders.

The following video presents the advice of a well-known physician regarding mitral insufficiency:

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