About 35% of the world's population is affected by the urinary system. Approximately 25-30% is associated with kidney anomalies. These include: an aneurysm of the arteries of the kidney, multiple or double renal arteries, a solitary artery, an additional artery of the kidney, fibromuscular stenosis, etc.
Additional artery of the kidney - what is it?
Additional renal artery is the most common malformation of the kidneys. This disease occurs in about 80% of cases in people with kidney disease. An additional artery is called the artery, which along with the main renal artery supplies the kidney.
With this anomaly, the kidneys are separated by two arteries: the main and secondary arteries. The additional rushes to the upper or lower segment of the kidney. The diameter of the additional artery is smaller than the main one.
Anomaly occurs during embryonic development, the cause of such deviations is not known for certain. It is assumed that, for undiagnosed reasons, a normal dev
elopment failure occurs, as a result of which, a renal artery may appear to double.
Several types of pathologies of renal vessels are known - arteries depending on their number:
Types of additional renal artery
- Double and multiple. Double supplementary artery is rare. The second artery, as a rule, is reduced, and is located in the pelvis in the form of branches on the left or on the right.
- Multiple arteries are found in norm and in pathology. They recede in the form of small vessels from the kidney.
The disease, as a rule, is asymptomatic. It appears only when the urinary tract is crossed by an additional artery.
Because of this crossing, urine outflow from the kidneys is difficult, resulting in such clinical manifestations:
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- Hydronephrosis is a persistent and rapid enlargement of the renal pelvis due to a violation of the outflow of urine.
- Arterial hypertension - high blood pressure( BP).The jump in blood pressure occurs due to the sickness of the fluid in the body, the blood vessels contract, the blood flow becomes difficult, as a result, the pressure increases.
- Kidney infarction. With prolonged hydronephrosis, there is a gradual atrophy of the renal parenchyma, which subsequently leads to a heart attack of the entire kidney.
- The formation of thrombi and bleeding at the sites of the intersection of the extra artery with urinary tract.
The kidney increases in size. In the urine can be found blood, trips to the toilet become painful. Patients complain of aching low back pain and high blood pressure.
When palpation develops painful syndrome in the form of attacks of renal colic, pain can also be irradiated to the ribs, both during physical activity and at rest.
The most commonly diagnosed are double and multiple renal arteries. In this deviation, blood supply to the kidney is accomplished by two or more channels of equal caliber. The disease is difficult to determine, since similar renal arteries are also observed in a healthy kidney. They do not always organize pathology, but often combine with other types of pathologies.
Determination of the presence of renal pathologies is carried out using an X-ray study.
To determine the particular cases of abnormal renal arteries, use:
- Excretory urography;
- Bottom Cavalogy;
- Renal phlebography;
When a double or multiple renal artery is found in a patient, the pyelograms obtained can detect defects in ureter filling, notice constrictions and kinks in the passage of the vessel, pyelocathia.
To determine the anomaly of the solitary artery, aortography is used.
What to do and how to treat is determined only after a complete diagnosis of the disease. Treatment is based on the restoration of a physiologically normal outflow of urine from the body. This effect can be achieved only by surgical intervention.
Resection of the accessory artery. Removal can be complete and partial. Partial - removal of the additional artery and the damaged area is almost done. Complete removal - removal of both the extra artery and the entire kidney.
Resection of the urinary tract. This operation is performed when resection of the additional artery is impossible. The narrowed portion of the urinary tract is removed and re-cross-linked.
The method of surgical intervention is determined by a physician as a urologist-surgeon individually for each patient.