Kidneys perform a variety of functional duties in the human body - participate in the process of creating blood( produce the hormone hemopoietin), regulate the acid-base composition of the blood( secrete ions of sodium bicarbonate), take part in the basic metabolic reactions in the human body( promote low-molecular lipid metabolism).Kidneys, thanks to osmotic and excretory functions, is the leading element of the human purification system. Any malfunctions in the operation of this paired organ will have serious consequences, since disturbances in the purification system mean that all harmful substances that arise during the life process of the organism will remain in it, poisoning and ruining.
There are situations in which the functionality of the kidneys is limited - congenital malformations of the kidney structure, hereditary diseases, including - the organs of the endocrine system, autoimmune diseases, mechanical factor, pathogenic invasion. The most common factor in disrupti
ng the kidneys is their infection. Medical statistics show that more than 50% of all patients are prone to kidney dysfunction based on various infections!
The primary function of the kidneys is to cleanse the human body, and it is not surprising that they are the target for infections. The organism, trying to get an infection, delivers it to the kidneys with the help of red and white blood. So it should be - the kidneys usually cope with their responsibility for refining the infection-bearing blood. But under certain conditions, the kidneys become vulnerable to pathogens. This is promoted by: poor immunity, imperfect immune system( in children), weakening of the female body during pregnancy, hypothermia, careless or improperly performed treatment, unhealthy lifestyle, unbalanced diet.
Let's consider in detail each cause separately:
- Immunity. Weak immunity - the reason that the infection is stopped by the body is not fast enough. Infectious agents stay in the blood in a dangerous amount and manage to hit the kidneys. This factor will be relevant in the case of children's immunity - it has not yet been fully formed, its mechanism is not perfect, and therefore there are many opportunities for infection on the way to the kidneys.
- Subcooling. A well-known medical scientist, one of the founders of immunology, Louis Pasteur, established the connection between the strength of immunity and the thermal regulation of the organism. He conducted an experiment with chicken: an attempt to infect poultry with an anthrax virus under normal conditions did not bring any result, but it was worth breaking the thermoregulation in the body of the bird, as all the individuals fell ill with a dangerous disease.
- Pregnancy. When pregnancy is complete physiological restructuring of the woman's body, which affects both the strength of immunity, and the state of the body as a whole. The load on the kidneys is significantly increased 2-2.5 times. Such hard work of the kidneys leads to fatigue and organ vulnerability to pathogens.
- Wrong treatment. People sometimes irresponsibly treat the treatment process, neglecting the order of taking medications, the therapeutic regimen."Why take an antibiotic capsule 4 times a day, every three hours, if you can drink only in the morning?" They ask themselves, receiving as a result of their actions a huge gap in immunity, penetration of the pathogen into the kidneys and personal gratitude from the infection.
- Wrong way of life. Understanding that health is the ultimate resource comes to people not at once and not always. Violation of the regime of day and rest, neglect of physical loads, smoking, hobby for alcohol and drugs are very bad for health and immunity. There are favorable conditions for the penetration of infections into the kidneys.
- Diet. Food containing dyes, preservatives, various food additives and carcinogens is extremely harmful to humans. The body tries to rid itself of poisons by seriously burdening the purification system. As a result, the kidneys suffer from harmful substances, there is a threat of infection.
Types of renal infections
The issue of the typology and classification of renal infections has not been fully addressed by modern medicine. The integration of Russian medical science with Western medical schools is not complete and it has divergences. However, it is possible to designate common parts of classifications that relate specifically to renal infections.
There is a classification of the way in which the infection spreads:
- Ascending - from the genitals through the urine and mechanical damage to the mucous membranes, the infection penetrates into the kidneys and genitourinary system.
- Descending - with white and red blood, the infection permeates the kidneys and infects other organs of the genitourinary system.
There is a classification regarding the onset, frequency and relapse of the disease:
- Primary infection - includes only the acute stage without chronic. The disease occurs the first time.
- Secondary infection - includes both acute and chronic stage of the disease. It implies a relapse of the illness that has arisen as a result of improper treatment, as well as a long, prolonged course of the disease.
There are other parameters of classifications and types of typologies of kidney diseases, but within this article they are not relevant.
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Infection is carried out by the following types of pathogens( the list reflects the incidence of descending):
- Bacteria: streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rickettsia.
- Viruses: influenza, herpes, AIDS.
- Fungi: candida albicans, candida tropicans.
- Protozoa are a malarial plasmodium.
Depending on the functional part of the kidneys attacked by the infection, three main types of infectious diseases of this organ are distinguished in nephrology:
- Pielit. Infection affected the mucous membrane of the kidney loaches.
- Pyelonephritis. Infection, starting in the mucous membrane of the kidney, goes to the nephrons and their constituent parts - the tubules.
- Glomerulonephritis. The infection spreads to the entire cluster( glomerulus, glomerulus) of nephrons, hitting them completely. Attention! Infectious glomerulonephritis is a fairly rare phenomenon, this disease is the result of the malfunction of the immune system.
Clinical picture of
The common in the clinic of diseases caused by pathogenic invasion of the kidneys is a violation of the excretory function of the kidneys. The cycle, frequency, volume of urination will become abnormal. Micturition is either too abundant( loss of protein and nutrients), or insignificantly( swelling, secondary poisoning of the body).The urine changes its color and smell.
The response of the immune system to the invasion of pathogens in the kidney is accompanied by an increase in body temperature. With infectious damage to the kidneys there is a high and very high temperature, but not always. In some cases, for example, with kidney infection with the AIDS virus, the temperature may drop below the norm of 36.6 ° C.
A person suffering from kidney infection experiences such symptoms: malaise, nausea, weakness, discomfort and pain in the lumbar region. The patient loses appetite, the pigmentation of the skin changes, a tremor is possible.
On the video, the symptoms of kidney dysfunction:
Diagnosis of renal infections begins with general clinical tests of urine and blood. If the laboratory assistant, when studying the urine sediment, reveals bacteriuria( the number of bacteria is above the norm), and a general blood test will show a high level of white blood cells - this will mean the presence of infection in the body.
Further studies will be aimed at clarifying the type of infection - culture culture of urine and a blood test for antibodies are performed. If doubts remain about the nature of the inflammation, additional, high-precision types of tests can be prescribed-PCR and blood biochemistry.
Treatment of kidney infections is not an easy and time-consuming process. The most severe renal infection is infectious glomerulonephritis. The duration of some of its forms can be five years! Pyelonephritis is treated completely when the tests, after a year of observation from the onset of the disease, show the absence of an agent. Easier than others, Pielit is treated in an acute form. This disease can be defeated in 1.5-3 months.
The conclusion that follows from the above information is simple, but very important - you can not run the disease, you need to take timely therapeutic measures to treat kidney infection!
Modern clinical medicine integrally approaches the problem of treating renal infections. It is stationary.
The nephrologist immediately takes measures to alleviate the patient's condition, and this is:
- Pevsner's diet;
- plentiful drink( only pure, still water, carbonated drinks and compotes are contraindicated);
- vitamins - E and C;
- antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents( aspirin, analgin, paracetamol, ibuprofen);
- antispasmodics to reduce pain and relieve vasospasms in the diseased kidney( spasmalgon, drotaverine);
- catheter to facilitate the removal of urine from the body( if needed);
- broad-spectrum antibiotics( ampiox, avelox, sumamed, rulid, amoxiclav, lincomycin, cefamandol).
The second stage of treatment involves actions in accordance with the results of diagnosis, the type determination, the form of the disease and the pathogen that caused it:
- diet correction( there may be a ban on salt, the amount of protein food may increase);
- in treatment appears the leading antibiotic, which had the most active effect on the pathogen during laboratory studies;
- to the leading antibiotic is often added uroantiseptic( a drug that increases the effectiveness of antibiotics in the fight against infection - furadonin, palin, biseptol);
- is prescribed diuretic drugs( help to quickly remove toxins from the body, improve the pharmacodynamics of antibiotics);
- with the development of metabolic acidosis appoint a preparation of sodium bicarbonate 3-5%.
If treatment shows good results, the patient is transferred to the "observed" category and discharged from the hospital.
Folk methods of treatment of kidney diseases largely preserve the logic of clinical treatment. There are folk remedies that help to remove spasm in the kidney: valerian officinalis( root), cat's foot( root), cloudberry( inflorescence), angelica( leaves).There are plant uroantiseptics - St. John's wort( leaves), dogrose( fetal skin), lyubo( root), golden-mill( inflorescences and leaves), chamomile( inflorescences), yarrow( leaves), parsley( root).Rosephrine, chamomile, parsley possess a diuretic effect. To reduce heat, fruits, inflorescences and raspberry leaves are used. To improve blood flow is very good horse chestnut( inflorescences, leaves, fruits, rind of fruit).
Traditional medicine is an excellent adjuvant therapy, but it can not replace the completely clinical treatment of pyelonephritis and infectious glomerulonephritis. These are too dangerous diseases, so that you can fully trust the people's methods of treatment.