Cyst is a closed pouch on the pancreas, which is filled with enzymatic substances. In the event of a rupture, the surrounding tissue can be seriously damaged. This disease is quite common, it equally often affects both men and women.
Causes of pancreatic cyst
This formation can be both congenital( true) and acquired( false).It is worth noting that congenital pathology is rarely diagnosed, since it often has rather small dimensions and does not put pressure on the surrounding organs. It can be detected purely by chance, when the patient comes to ultrasound for a completely different matter.
In some cases, a congenital cyst may appear as a result of congenital obstruction of the ducts of the organ. This condition is dangerously chronic inflammation, which can lead to cystic fibrosis of the organ.
As for the false cyst, the main causes of its development are the following factors: inflammatory diseases( pancreatic necrosis, pancreatitis), organ trauma and stones formed in the gland.
According to statistics, about 90% of acquired cysts were formed as a result of acute pancreatitis. As a rule, 10% appear as a result of trauma to the body.
It is important to know that the excessive consumption of fried, spicy and fatty foods, as well as the abuse of alcoholic beverages, increases the risk of this pathology.
Symptoms and signs of pancreatic cyst
Cysts of small size can generally be asymptomatic. As a rule, the symptoms appear only when it reaches impressive proportions and squeezes adjacent organs. One can distinguish the main signs of this disease:
- permanent abdominal pain;
- nausea and vomiting;
- indigestion disorder;
- weight loss;
- high temperature;
- with palpation can detect a tumor in the abdomen.
It should be noted that sometimes even in the presence of pathologies of large size, the symptoms of the disease can be expressed slightly. The patient can only complain about the feeling of pressure in the epigastric region. Severe pain can occur if it puts pressure on the celiac and solar plexus.
What is a pancreatic cyst, a tumor or not?
Pancreatic cysts can be malignant, precancerous and benign. In the event that it turns out to be cancerous, it must be surgically removed immediately, since the risk of metastasis is high.
As a rule, neoplastic cysts are referred to malignant tumors, because they have a tendency to metastasize and rapidly increase in size. They usually have a dense structure with an uneven surface and irregular shape.
When choosing a treatment in case of detection of a malignant form, doctors need to decide whether the patient will be able to reschedule the operation. Each case of the disease is unique, therefore an individual approach to each patient is required. Despite the achievements of modern medicine, operations on the pancreas are always very complex and dangerous. The patient can have serious complications.
Dimensions of pancreatic cyst
Dimensions of pancreatic cysts can be very different - from a few centimeters to the size of the head of a newborn baby. It should be noted that they can be not only single, but also multiple, they are usually related to each other. Usually, for small pathologies, constant monitoring is necessary. Large formations need to be removed, because they can burst when coughing or at the slightest blow.
Treatment of pancreatic pancreas
If a patient has a cyst less than three centimeters and no complaints of worsening, it is necessary to conduct a survey once a year to monitor her growth. If, as a result of the diagnosis, the malignant nature of the disease is confirmed, then it is necessary to immediately remove this formation until the metastases spread to other organs.
To date, there are several methods of removing the pancreatic cyst. Let's consider each of them separately:
- Cystoenterostomy refers to the opening of the cyst cavity followed by treatment with a variety of antibacterial solutions. Then, its walls are sewn to the intestinal wall to form, thus, a channel for venting gastric juice into the gastrointestinal tract.
- Laparoscopy is the most gentle method, which allows the patient to save from a large operating injury. This method is mainly suitable for single large cysts. With the help of a special puncture needle, the contents are sucked through the abdominal cavity. This minor surgical intervention is usually performed with a needle.
- Resection is the partial removal of the affected part of the organ.
The method of treatment is usually prescribed by a doctor. After the operation, regular monitoring of the patient with ultrasound is necessary. After discharge, the patient must comply with all the prescription of the doctor, change the lifestyle and diet to reduce possible relapses to a minimum.
History of the disease pancreatic cysts
The patient's medical history describes general information about the patient( name, sex, age, education, etc.).Then the doctor should listen to his complaints, conduct an examination of the patient and appoint an appropriate examination. After that, based on the results obtained, the final diagnosis is made. An appropriate treatment is prescribed and a prognosis is made.
Pancreatic cyst is a prognosis, what is dangerous?
Actually it is quite a dangerous disease. Especially if the malignant nature of this disease is revealed. Metastases can spread to other organs, and then the prognosis will be disappointing - the patient will be very difficult to help. Even if the tumor is not malignant, then it can reach a large size, and then burst with the slightest clumsy movement or impact, which will lead to serious consequences. If the patient in the event of a break is not provided with qualified medical care, then peritonitis and sepsis may occur, resulting in a possible fatal outcome.
Cyst of head, body, tail of pancreas
Usually the symptoms of this disease depend on the location and size of the cysts. They can be located on the body, head or tail of the organ. If the cyst is in the head, then in this case the compression symptom is most often observed, that is, mechanical jaundice, intestinal stenosis, and nausea and vomiting may appear. There may also be an attack of acute pancreatitis, which is characterized by severe shingles and vomiting.
The cyst of the head of the pancreas can be palpated in the navel area. In the event that it is located on the body or tail of the organ, it can be probed in the left hypochondrium. If it is on a leg, then it can be found in various parts of the abdomen. Usually, it is oval or round, smooth, painless to the touch and sedentary.
The cyst located in the tail of the pancreas, as a rule, presses on the kidneys and ureters, so it can deform the pelvis and calyx buds. If this education is on the body of the body, then pushes the stomach and colon. The doctor, depending on the location and size, must choose the most appropriate method of treatment.
Cysts and pancreatic fistulas
Fistula is usually a pathological communication of the ducts of the organ with the external environment or internal organs. The cyst and fistula should usually be seen in complete interrelation.
An external fistula in the pancreas is usually formed as a result of an open trauma or after a surgery on the organ, as a result of which the ducts are opened.
Internal fistula usually appears with some destructive changes in the organ, for example, as a result of acute pancreatitis or perforation of the cyst in the pancreas. Fistula can be either complete or incomplete. In the first case, conservative treatment is usually prescribed, and in the second case, it is unlikely to manage without surgery. In any case, the treatment should appoint a doctor.
Cystic pancreatitis, as a rule, is characterized by a large number of small formations on the pancreas. They usually do not exceed 15 mm. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of ultrasound. The patient has an increase in the pancreas, as well as uneven contours with small band structures that are filled with liquid.
Some patients can observe enlarged large pancreatic ducts. Cystic pancreatitis is diagnosed in about 10% of patients, 60% of them usually develop complications. When palpation, you can feel the sensitive and painful pancreas. During the remission period, the pain syndrome may be absent.
From all of the above it becomes clear that the diseases of the pancreas are always very dangerous. To prevent these diseases, it is recommended to limit the consumption of fatty, fried and spicy foods, as well as alcoholic beverages. You should include as much vegetables and fruits as possible in your diet, especially fresh grapes. It improves the functioning of the pancreas. It is necessary to undergo a medical examination at least once a year.