Pseudomembranous colitis is a common inflammatory disease. Its causes are inflammatory processes that occur with prolonged treatment with antibiotics. They contribute to the destruction of beneficial bacteria of the intestine, which leads to the growth of the microbial Clostridium difficile, which has an infectious effect. With further development of the disease on the walls of the intestine pseudomembranes are formed. In weak patients, there is an intoxication of the body, serious damage to the walls of the colon develops, which leads to perforation. Sometimes there is an obstruction of the intestine, which is caused by a membranous septum. In this case, you need to make a full diagnosis of the intestine.
Membraneous obstruction of the duodenum is very common. Also, with atresia, holes in the membrane may be present.
Almost 20% of patients can detect a Clostridium difficile microbe. Its appearance depends on a variety of factors, including the number of antibiotics used, the examination of the w
alls of the large intestine for damage. With age, the risk of the appearance of this microbe increases. In most cases, these are elderly people who are not always provided with qualified treatment. Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis occur both in men and in women. The frequency of appearance is approximately the same.
In addition to pseudomembrane inpatients, clostridial colitis, as well as membranous obstruction, may occur. Clostridial colitis is an inflammatory disease that occurs with excessive intake of antibiotics. There is a serious condition of the patient, pain in the abdomen. Therefore, with this disease it is important to provide the necessary treatment in time.
Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis
The first symptom of pseudomembranous colitis, and obstruction can occur in the patient during the administration of antibiotics, as well as after completing the medication.
With mild forms of the disease, diarrhea is noted due to medication. Within 7-10 days, as a consequence of antibiotic treatment, a severe form of clostridial colitis can develop. In this case, the first sign will be liquid diarrhea. All this has a negative effect on water-electrolyte metabolism in the body and causes tachycardia, general fatigue, a decrease in the tone of all muscles.
Symptoms of dehydration:
- rapid pulse;
- rare urination;
- dry skin.
In very severe cases, bloody discharge from the rectum is observed. Diarrhea and dehydration of the body have an intoxication effect, the symptoms of which are:
- abdominal pain;
- poor appetite, refusal to eat;
- body temperature is above 38 °.
Most often the patient has pain before bowel movement, the process of bowel movement is difficult. Palpation of the colon causes painful and unpleasant sensations, the stomach is swollen.
Symptom of complications of pseudomembranous and clostridial colitis is perforation of the intestine, as well as its increase in size. This can be caused by constipation, which has a toxic effect on the body. With perforation of the intestine, very severe headaches are observed, the muscles of the abdominal press are strained and painful. In addition, a fluid appears in the abdominal cavity, which further aggravates the general condition of the patient. For improvement of a status it is necessary to select the necessary scheme or plan of treatment of a pseudomembranous colitis.
Development of membranous colitis
Among the underlying causes of the disease is not only an antibiotic effect on the body. The following factors can be distinguished:
- kidney failure;
- malignant formation;
- operations performed in the abdominal region;
- chronic inflammatory bowel condition;
- reception of cytotoxic drugs;
- Crohn's disease;
- long-term presence near infectious patients;
- probe installation.
Pseudomembranous colitis in children
Not only adults and elderly people are susceptible to this disease, children can also develop this disease, therefore it is better to provide the necessary treatment in a short time.
In the first year of life, the child is the most vulnerable, therefore the cases of the spread of the Clostridium difficile microbial are not uncommon. Also children suffer from membrane type atresia. To treat obstruction, membrane excision is used.
Another known method, but more traumatic is the treatment of membranous duodenal obstruction with the aid of superimposition of bypass anastomoses.
The occurrence of pseudomembranous colitis at this age occurs much less frequently, even despite prolonged use of antibiotic drugs.
Prolonged stay in the hospital for the reception of antibiotics promotes the development of pseudomembranous colitis. Most often this disease affects newborns with Hirschsprung's disease, children with a lack of leukocytes in the blood, as well as infants with chronic inflammatory processes - colitis or Crohn's disease.
Usually pseudomembranous colitis in a child begins in the form of mild colitis and is not very serious. The peculiarity of the disease is the absence of symptoms of intoxication of the body, the prevalence of diarrhea. If you do not provide treatment, this can lead to life-threatening dehydration. Complications of pseudomembranous colitis can be accompanied by heavy bleeding, development of sepsis and intestinal perforation.
Diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis
To make the right diagnosis and choose the treatment regimen, you need to undergo a medical examination. A general blood test will reveal possible anemia, and urine collection - kidney failure or various infectious diseases. Also, the physician should conduct a physical examination to determine the extent of the course of the disease and find out what manifestations are observed in the patient.
Computed tomography will reveal pathological changes in the intestine. With the help of a colonoscopy, a specialist will perform a diagnosis of the intestinal wall and take a biopsy for analysis.
Scheme for treatment of pseudomembranous colitis
The main goal of treating pseudomembranous colitis is to eliminate the symptoms of inflammation.
When diarrhea is necessary to follow a hunger diet. The therapy scheme should be as follows:
- Drinking plenty of liquid - herbal decoctions or just water, if tea, then unsweetened;
- After diarrhea subsides, you can take cottage cheese, kefir;
- Need to eat often and in small portions;
- Eat bananas, rice, baked potatoes, as these products significantly reduce diarrhea;
- To exclude from the diet fried and spicy food, so it is necessary to adhere to the right diet.
To eliminate all the symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis will take a long time. But even with the disappearance of all the symptoms it is recommended to maintain a healthy diet and support treatment.
For treatment, bacterial therapy is also applied, which has a bactericidal effect on the fecal flora and eliminates the symptoms of the disease.
In severe forms of pseudomembranous colitis - perforation, perforation or expansion of the walls of the large intestine - surgical intervention is necessary. In this case, the affected part is removed. After this operation, the patients stabilize and the chances for recovery are significantly increased.