1 Causes of sinusitis
The most common cause of maxillary sinusitis in adults is Staphylococcus aureus, which can live for a long time in the human body and not manifest itself. Once the immune system fails or if the active phase of the acute respiratory infection is accompanied by rhinitis, this infection can be activated and cause sinusitis.
Very often the cause of the disease are fungi. They cause an inflammatory process in people suffering from diabetes mellitus, AIDS, leukemia.
Also, doctors identify the following causes of the disease:
- systematic exposure to drafts;
- improper treatment or complete ignoring of the common cold;
- anatomical changes or trauma to septa in the nasal cavity;
- allergic reactions;
- adenoids or polyps;
- untimely sanitation of the oral cavity, chronic infection;
- presence in the body of viruses, bacteria, infections;
- the unauthorized administration of vasoconstrictive drops in the treatment of the common cold;
- decreased immune defenses of the body.
If you ignore the treatment or the passage of advice from an ENT doctor, then the acute form of the disease quickly turns into a chronic one.
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2 Symptomatic picture of the disease
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults do not have pronounced manifestations in the first days. Some do not attach importance to the common cold before the appearance of unpleasant sensations or severe headaches.
Doctors emphasize the attention of adults that the symptoms of genyantritis at the initial stages can be the following:
- plentiful discharge of mucus from the nasal sinuses( in the first days of excretion may be transparent, but in the future there may appear purulent particles or bad smell);
- breathing disorders( if you ignore treatment in the first days of the patient, you can completely stop breathing your nose, and at night this symptom is aggravated, which makes the sleep restless);
- severe pain that increases after morning awakening;
- increased pain in the nose, especially when tilting the head forward;
- pain can spread to the area of the teeth, forehead, eyes;
- aches, weakness throughout the body;
- fever, chills, poor health.
If a person ignores the first signs of sinusitis, the disease begins to manifest itself more actively. In patients, the following symptoms occur:
- nasal voices, severe nasal congestion, which occurs for a very short period of time;
- discharge from the nose becomes a greenish-yellow color or completely cease to depart;
- elevated body temperature, in some cases its performance may reach critical levels;
- loss of appetite, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting are signs of intoxication that occur when a large number of purulent discharge accumulates in the nasal sinuses.
In cases where patients do not seek help in the acute stage, sinusitis can acquire a chronic form.
For chronic sinusitis in adults, the following symptoms are typical:
- complete or partial absence of secretions;
- stuffy nose, which does not pass even from medications;
- headache, which is manifested from the side of the inflamed sinus;
- sore throat, which is caused by a chronic inflammatory process on the mucosa;
- memory loss, fatigue, fatigue.
In addition, discharge from the nose is evidence of the nature of sinusitis. Many doctors argue that for nasal secretions one can judge the inflammatory process that occurs in the nasal sinuses.
- if the secretions are clear or white, this is the initial stage of the disease;
- green color - inflammatory process, acute form;
- green with a yellow tinge is an inflammatory process that requires immediate specialist intervention.
3 Diagnostic procedures
The first symptoms of sinusitis should be addressed to LOR.He will conduct diagnostic studies that will establish or deny the presence of the disease in the patient. Of the main diagnostic methods, doctors use the following:
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- Rhinoscopy - examination of the nasal passages with a special mirror;
- if there is a suspicion of the presence of pus in the sinuses, it may be proposed to undergo radiography;
- in severe cases, when the disease is caused by trauma or congenital changes in the nasal septum, the doctor may recommend the passage of an MRI or CT scan;
- total blood test;
- if necessary, surgical intervention can be taken puncture of the maxillary sinuses;
- in specialized clinics can use thermal imagers or thermographs.
4 Treatment of the acute form of
Symptoms and treatment in adults with acute forms are closely related. First of all, conservative treatment will be aimed at eliminating the mucosal edema, removing the contents of nasal sinuses outward, removing inflammation, normalizing nasal breathing.
All medicines during treatment are selected taking into account the features of the acute course and the causes that caused it:
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- To eliminate puffiness, desensitizing therapy is used.
- For the normalization of restorative work on the mucosa, emollients are used.
- An antiseptic is used to treat the nasal cavity and eliminate infection.
- ENT doctors use the Cuckoo method, which mechanically cleans the nasal sinuses and removes the accumulated fluid outward.
When the temperature is normal and the general well-being is improved, the patient can be physiotherapy. The most effective methods are:
- laser irradiation;
- ultrasound treatment;
- treatment with ultraviolet;
In some cases, when the recovery does not occur for a long period of time, doctors treat the disease with the help of a surgical procedure.
Hymorotomy - excision of the maxillary sinuses of all the contents together with the medial wall. It is preferable to use the endoscopic method for the patient and the physician. But in severe cases it is necessary to open sinuses on the face.
In some cases, patients are offered simultaneous removal of polyps or cysts with nasal septums.
5 Treatment of the chronic form
In a disease such as chronic sinusitis, the symptoms and treatment will depend on the provoking factor that has become the trigger mechanism for the disease. For the beginning it is necessary to eliminate chronic inflammatory processes in the ENT organs and in the oral cavity( caries, pulpitis).
The chronic form of genyantritis in adults is treated according to the following scheme:
- Antibiotic therapy. There is a course of antibiotics, which the doctor appoints.
- To relieve swelling and inflammation in the maxillary sinuses, vasoconstrictor drops or sprays are used.
- Mucolytics are used to excrete and dilute mucus.
- Complement all physiotherapy procedures, vitamin complexes, restorative drugs that enhance the body's immune system.
To eliminate the symptoms of chronic sinusitis and increase the period of remission, treatment should continue after recovery. Doctors recommend the following procedures:
- Systematic use of various solutions for washing maxillary sinuses. The most effective and effective is a weak solution from table salt or sea salt. Good help to prevent exacerbation of anti-inflammatory sprays.
- Constant adjustment of the body's immune system. It can be special drugs or a balanced diet, saturated with vitamins and trace elements.
- If the chronic form is a consequence of the anatomical structure of the septum, the latter should be adjusted.
6 Methods of care at home
Doctors recommend using folk methods of treating the disease as one of the effective and effective. Among the most popular recipes, the following are distinguished:
- To remove the contents of the nasal sinuses, you can use drops of aloe and calanchoe juice. They are bred in the same proportion with vegetable oil and dig in the nose. The effect comes quickly, while the content is displayed well and thoroughly.
- Beet juice has an antibacterial effect. They can dig in every nasal trek up to 4 times a day. The procedure will be effective if you wash it with a soda or saline solution before instillation.
- For better separation of liquid, you can massage the onion bag. To do this, put the onion in the gauze pouch. They are massaging the nasal septum. Such a procedure should be conducted for at least 10 consecutive days.
- For the removal of the inflammatory process can be used decoction of laurel leaf. For 1 glass of water, 5 laurel leaves are taken and brought to a boil. As soon as the liquid becomes room temperature, a napkin is dipped into it. Then the napkin is applied to the nose, into the area of the maxillary sinuses. This procedure is done several times in a row, until the water completely cools.
- Very good for inhalation. They can be made from soda, boiled potatoes, propolis. But it is worth remembering that inhalations are strictly forbidden in cases of genyantritis caused by an allergic reaction.
- Black radish, grated, is put in gauze and applied to the nose for 10 minutes. This method removes puffiness and inflammation on the mucosa.
- Have an antibacterial effect, relieve inflammation of the drops, made from the juice of potatoes, onions and honey. They bury their nose at least 3 times a day.
7 Possible complications of
Sinusitis is a serious disease that often causes various complications.
Once the inflammatory process spreads beyond the nasal sinuses, it may involve the cerebral part, the skull. Also, sinusitis can cause the development of encephalitis or meningitis, ophthalmia( inflammatory processes in the eyeball) or sepsis. Infection of blood and meningitis most often lead to death or disability of the patient.
If timely to conduct therapeutic treatment, to comply with all the recommendations of the attending physician, complications do not appear, and recovery comes quickly.
Observing the basic rules of prevention, you can always protect yourself from this insidious and unpleasant disease. People who follow the following rules have a low risk of getting sinusitis:
- wash their hands after visiting public places, toilets, streets;
- do not smoke, avoid smoking areas;
- clean air, avoid dry and polluted air;
- not to abuse alcoholic beverages;
- to engage in fitness, tempering, eating right, so that your own immunity was at the highest level;
- regularly walk in the fresh air, take vitamins;
- correctly and in time to treat all infectious and viral diseases, runny nose.
Observing basic preventive measures, everyone can avoid sinusitis and be healthy and strong.