The main organs of the human digestive system are considered to be not the small glands in the gastrointestinal mucosa, but the two largest glands of the body, which are the liver and pancreas. During the development of the embryo, these organs form in the wall of the duodenum, and then, expanding, they extend considerably beyond its limits.
The liver and pancreas, having turned into independent large glands, remain forever connected with the ducts with the duodenum, through which the secrets produced by them are delivered. These organs differ from the rest not only by their large weight and size, but also by features, both in structure and in functions.
Structure of the liver and pancreas
The gland located on the back of the peritoneum behind the stomach is called the pancreas. Its structure consists of three parts( head, tail, body) and two divisions:
- in one of them produces universal pancreatic juice containing enzymes that break down practically all organic food substances( exocrine function of the body);
- in another department, represented by islet cells, not connected with the gland ducts, produces insulin, which immediately enters the bloodstream, taking up an important role in carbohydrate metabolism( the function of internal secretion of the pancreas).
The liver - one of the largest internal organs weighing about one and a half kilograms - is located on the right under the diaphragm. Its parenchyma has a lobed structure. The liver, as well as the pancreas, plays a major role in the digestive function of the body, producing bile, which is a digestive juice for the processing of fats. Produced bile, stored in the gallbladder, located in the neighborhood and along the duct is supplied to the intestine only during meals.
Anatomy of the organ is quite complicated. The gland consists of epithelial cells, a large number of nerve endings and blood vessels. For a long time, doctors believed that the main function of the liver is the production of bile. But this statement proved wrong and erroneous. The role of the organ in the vital activity of the organism is much broader, which has been proved scientifically by experience. This is a vital organ, the removal of which is incompatible with life. The complete stopping of the bile production function leads to the death of a person for several days. The role of the liver in the body is a central chemical laboratory, on the basis of which the hematopoietic, protective, metabolic( vitamin, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and water) processes of the body depend.
Cleansing of organs
Improper nutrition, medication, alcohol, environment, infections have a negative role on the body. To ensure that the organs throughout their lives are healthy and fully able to perform their functions, they need to help get rid of toxins by cleaning them. After all, more than 90% of antigenic substances, alien to the body, are rendered harmless in the liver.
Cleaning the body as a whole, as well as individual bodies in particular - is a process that does not tolerate connivance. Even if cleansing of the liver and pancreas is planned to be carried out with the help of phytotherapy and diet - it is necessary to consult a doctor, eliminating possible contraindications. To clean, suggesting an intensified cholagogue process, did not end with an attack of acute pancreatitis due to a stone stuck in the duct.
Anatomy and histology of the liver
The liver is the second largest glandular organ in the human body. Its weight reaches 1.5 kg or more. The color of a healthy organ is brownish-red. It is covered by a thin, but strong shell of connective tissue. The organ is located in the right hypochondrium of the abdominal cavity, closely in contact with the organs of the gastrointestinal tact and the right kidney. It is formed by two parts - right and left. More volume - the right share. In a larger proportion, the gallbladder and the lower hollow vein are located. The surface of the Oran, from below, adjacent to the organs of the abdominal cavity, is divided by furrows. Two furrows - longitudinal, one - transverse. The latter forms a gateway into which the hepatic artery, portal vein and nerves enter. The bile duct and lymph come out of the gate.
Histologically, the liver is represented by parenchyma and stroma. Parenchyma is formed from hepatic cells - hepatocytes, the main functional units of the organ. Hepatocytes have an endothermal origin. Stroma is a connective tissue, of mesoderm origin, which separates the structural units of the organ. Lobules, or structural units of the liver, consist of hepatocytes, which are located in it in the form of strands, so-called beams. In these formations pass the bile and blood capillaries. The hepatic lobule is designed so that hepatocytes produce and produce both endocrine and exocrine( bile) secretions.
Anatomy and Histology of the Pancreas
The pancreas is an unpaired organ involved in the function of digestion. It is located in the retroperitoneal region, at the level of the first two lumbar vertebrae. The weight of the organ is 80-100 g, and the length is 18-22 cm. This is an elongated glandular formation, which has three suits - the head, body and tail, separated by grooves. The pancreas tightly adjoins the duodenum. The organ is covered with a connective tissue membrane.
Histological structure of the pancreas is represented by lobes, which are separated from each other by the walls of connective tissue. Inside the lobules there are intra-lobular ducts and blood vessels. Protocols in the lobes collect a secret that is excreted into interlobular ducts. Between the lobules of the gland are the so-called islets of Langerhans - globular cluster cells that produce insulin and glucagon involved in carbohydrate metabolism.