Sometimes in the performance of FGS a polyp is found in a person in the stomach. These are benign neoplasms, but some of them are able to transform into cancer tumors.
After detection, a biopsy is always done to exclude the oncological process. Usually, the patient is assigned polyp removal. So whether it is necessary, what techniques are used, how to behave after the operation - answers in the article.
Do I need to delete my education?
Polyps externally resemble a fungus - they also have a thin stem, and at the top expand. But some neoplasms grow on a wide base, expanding in breadth.
These tumors are benign, growing out of the cells of the epithelium of the mucosa. Nevertheless, the danger of polyps is still great: they can not only grow rapidly, but also be malignant - to degenerate into cancer.
Another risk is the diffuse proliferation of tumors when they occupy a large volume of the stomach, although this rarely happens.
Therefore, such tumors should be immediately removed and not hesitate, especially if the patient is over 45 years old. The second type of tumor does not have dangerous cells, it often appears in young patients, so with a small amount of them, the doctor can choose the waiting tactics, but under supervision.
In general, the indications for surgery to remove neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal tract are as follows:
- Presence of symptoms of pathology - pain, heartburn, pressure, feelings of overcrowding, belching, etc.
- The presence of common disorders - weight loss, anemia
- Appearance of adenomatous formation of any size
- Rapid growth of the hyperplastic polyp and its value is more than 1,5-2 cm
By which methods are removed polyps in the stomach
Methods by which neoplasms are excised from the affected organ,several. Selection of a specific method is performed only by a physician based on data of fibrogastroscopy, biopsy.
The type of polyp, its magnitude, the number of formations in the stomach are of decisive importance.
It is possible to use cavitary operations - resection, gastrectomy( only in neglected situations), but such techniques have in recent years been put on the back burner.
Perspective methods for the removal of formations are endoscopic techniques, where excision is performed without cuts - through transesophageal access. In recent years, laser technologies have also been used as one of the types of minimally invasive interventions.
Traumaticity of such operations is minimal, and sometimes small polyps are removed during the usual GFG.Below is a more detailed description of methods for removing neoplasms of the stomach.
Endoscopic technique of
There are several varieties of this type of removal of benign tumors, but all of them are associated with the introduction into the body cavity of a special device - an endoscope and optical devices.
Inside the endoscope surgical equipment is brought, after which the doctor, controlling his actions by visualizing them on the monitor, excises the tumor. Anesthesia for surgery is selected based on its complexity: often small tumors can be removed without general anesthesia, whereas multiple polyposis and large tumors are excised only under systemic anesthesia.
The main methods of endoscopic removal of stomach polyps are as follows:
- Electrical coagulation. It presupposes the use of current, for which special forceps approach the formation, connect the current, heat pathological tissues, and they are evaporated. The method is ideal for getting rid of polyps less than 1 cm in diameter.
- Electric excision. A loop is used to grasp the neoplasm at its base, after which it is electrified, the polyp is cut off and the affected tissues are cauterized. If the polyp is large, this method is not practiced, or the lesion is excised in parts.
- Polypectomy. It is a technique for mechanically cutting a tumor with a loop or other micro-tools. Since the subsequent cauterization is not expected, this method is potentially dangerous hemorrhage.
After intervention, the patient does not need to stay in the clinic for longer than 2-4 hours. During endoscopy, it is possible to potentially remove up to 7 large polyps or more than 20 small polyps, but if there are more of them, the operation is performed in several stages in order to avoid the risk of the appearance of an extensive wound surface.
But there are also disadvantages of such manipulations - the risk of damage to the stomach is still present, in addition, the neoplasm may reappear if its cells remain on the mucosa.
Contraindications to operations are:
- Presence of a defibrillator and heart pacemaker in a patient
- Serious problems with coagulability
- General condition not permitting to perform operations
- Diffuse organ damage by polyposis( need a cavity operation)
The laser vaporization method is the most sparing, suitable forremoval of all types of stomach polyps.
With the help of endoscopic equipment, the doctor places the medical laser tip in the stomach, after which the neoplasm evaporates layer by layer. The depth of laser treatment, the accuracy of processing tissues are strictly controlled, so the results will be optimal.
Also, after removal, the vessels are sealed, which will avoid bleeding. Scars after laser manipulation, too, does not remain. Complete healing of tissues occurs after 10 days.
The disadvantages of the method can be called high cost, the need for a highly qualified specialist, the lack of the necessary equipment in many public hospitals.
Open surgical intervention
In the case of multiple polyposis, with suspicion of malignant polyps, with very large sizes of lesions with a broad leg, an open intervention is necessary. Usually, laparoscopic techniques are used, only with a severe need is a complete cut of the abdominal wall.
The procedure is as follows:
- The patient is given a general anesthetic.
- Cut the peritoneal and stomach tissues into layers.
- Remove the polyp, the adjacent mucous membrane of the organ.
- Sew up all damaged tissues in the reverse order.
- The person is transferred to the intensive care unit, then to the usual ward.
Complications can be problems with the heart, lungs, heavy bleeding, thrombosis, infections, so without urgent need such operations do not.
Removal of part of the stomach( resection) or complete excision( gastrectomy) is carried out according to the strictest indications. Among them - the defeat of the entire organ polyposis, frequent recurrence of adenomatous polyps, the development of cancer, necrosis of the polyp and stomach tissue.
Completely the stomach is removed only with a cancerous tumor, since in the preserved organ often recurrence of the disease occurs.
Complications of such heavy operations can be severe. In addition to a person's disability and the inability to eat, as before, hypoglycemic syndrome, digestive disorders and other consequences are observed. The most serious complication is death, which is recorded in 10-15% of cases.
I was done removing the polyp of the stomach with a loop 2 years ago. I experienced the operation normally, it lasted about 10 minutes. It was unpleasant to lie with a tube in my throat, but it was tolerable. When the polyp itself was removed, I felt irritation and aching pain, but very weak. But they took out pieces of education for a long time - the stomach contracted, there were vomitive urges strong. Part of the polyp has not been removed, but it's not scary. The rest was sent for analysis. After the operation I drank different pills, everything healed quickly.
The removal of the polyp of the stomach had to be done in 40 years, although I had it for another 30 years. Education began to grow, the gastroenterologist advised not to pull any more. In addition, the pain in the stomach and stomach was sometimes very strong. Removed under anesthesia, with the help of an endoscope, right in the office of FGS.Special pain was not there, but during the first meal she appeared, fell on her stomach. Discomfort was present for almost a week, then the condition stabilized. Unfortunately, after 3 years I have a new polyp next to the former, but for the time being it is not necessary to remove it - small size.
The cost of removing polyps of the stomach varies depending on the clinic, the doctor's qualifications, complexity, the number of polyps, type of anesthesia.
Diet after excision of the polyp in the stomach
When returning home, do not start health - regularly do FGS, that is, do not forget about monitoring the results of the operation. It is also important to eat properly, as the doctor will tell you, it will help the mucosa to heal more.
On the first day you can not eat, and then until the full recovery of the mucous( 10-40 days), the following products are banned:
- Fresh rolls, any cream baking
- All fried, hot, salted
- Fatty meat, rich soups
- Smoked sausages
- All dishes with vinegar
You can have well-boiled porridges soaked in milk or water, crackers, vegetarian and mucous soups, steam cutlets, bananas, stewed vegetables, steamed eggs, low-fat dairy products.
Can I not do the operation?
Occasionally polyps dissolve on their own. Conservative treatment is applied to "safe" formations of up to 2 cm, which do not threaten malignancy and do not grow at a rapid pace.
For the treatment of diet, taking enveloping agents, drugs to reduce the production of hydrochloric acid, antibiotics, supplements to improve digestion. The lack of treatment effect or the onset of growth of the neoplasm are indications for surgery.
Video shows endoscopic polypectomy of the stomach polyp: