1 Symptoms of the disease
Trauma refers to severe injuries and manifests itself as a prolonged coma. This is a rather difficult condition that not all patients experience. Quite often it goes into the vegetative, which lasts for several months, or even years. The patient in this position requires special care, treatment and long-term rehabilitation. There is also a decrease in reflexes, autonomic disorders, meningeal syndrome.
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Trauma is accompanied by hemorrhages, which is quite dangerous for the patient's life. With diffuse damage, the pathological process spreads over large areas of the brain and passes to the dorsal. Mental disorders accompany all periods of pathology. Even with a favorable course of the disease, modern treatment, the patient learns to speak and walk again, to restore memory.
2 Diagnostic methods and diagnosis of
The severity of craniocerebral trauma is determined by the Glasgow coma scale. This diagnostic method is not the only, but effective enough. Its essence is to assess the level of consciousness based on the patient's reaction to stimuli. The assessment takes place on a scale of 3 to 15. Verbal, motor and eye reactions of the patient to stimuli are investigated. An easy degree of injury is level 13 and higher. Average - from 9 to 12. Heavy - 8 and below.
An effective tool in the diagnosis of brain trauma is MRI.This method allows you to accurately display the degree of diffuse damage: edema or bruise of axons, the size of lesions.
MRI allows you to designate an effective treatment and save the vitality of the patient's brain. All modern medical institutions are equipped with equipment for such research and are provided by specialists able to correctly read the results of diagnostics.
If you suspect a traumatic brain injury, you need to provide access to oxygen and an optimal level of blood pressure. All this is feasible in a hospital. Prior to the arrival of an ambulance, it is necessary to help the victim take the position lying on his side. In case of vomiting, rinse and rinse mouth. If the victim is indoors, fresh air should be provided. It is impossible to transport the patient independently, so as not to cause even greater damage.
In case of bleeding, a tight sterile dressing with a roller is applied. It is important to press the skin in place of the bleeding vessel to the skull, and then apply a bandage. The cervical spine should be immobilized with improvised means. An ambulance doctor should first apply an anesthetic drug, as the victim experiences unbearable pain.
3 How are the therapeutic activities of
? Exclusively in the conditions of the neurosurgical department of the medical institution, a method of treatment is chosen - conservative or operative. It depends on the severity of the trauma and the characteristics of the patient.
Drug treatment is aimed at reducing the edema of the brain tissue, removing toxic products. Nootropics are used to improve vascular blood flow and anticonvulsants. In severe cases, the patient is placed in the intensive care unit, where a number of measures are taken to maintain his vital functions.
Surgical treatment is indicated if the lesion is a focus of necrosis or hematoma - large and press on surrounding tissues. In the case of an open head injury, the operation is mandatory, it can not be avoided. Opening the cranium and washing the brain tissue is quite a complicated procedure for both the patient and the neurosurgeon. The consequences of such an operation are unpredictable.
4 Rehabilitation of the patient
Damage to the brain does not pass without a trace, so after treatment a patient needs to undergo several recovery courses. Rehabilitation is aimed at resuming functions and training skills lost as a result of trauma. The goal is to help the patient reach the highest level of independent functioning. Rehabilitation is possible both at home and under the supervision of the attending physician, and at the sanatorium. In the latter case, the restoration of health is more effective, but less time-consuming and depends on the capabilities of the patient.
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Diffuse head trauma, as well as other injuries, causes certain cognitive problems in the patient. If the executive functions of the brain are not affected( problem solving, logic), then the patient continues to service himself. Otherwise, all aspects of the patient's behavior are affected.
Rehabilitation of the post-traumatic condition should be continuous and continuous. After assessing the degree of loss of cognitive functions, behavioral abilities, communication skills, hearing, specialists choose treatment. Recovery is aimed at stimulating understanding of speech and situations, self-service. Therapy concentrates on improving attention.
The most important role in restoring the patient's health is in the regime, especially in the case of sleep. The patient should lie down not later than 21:00, and in the daytime, sleep at least 1 hour. This is necessary for recovery.
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Physiotherapy is aimed at activating the vital functions of the body, improving blood circulation, developing motor skills. The patient has to learn anew to keep a spoon, to walk, to serve himself. The restoration of lost functions is carried out through training. Gradually, the patient remembers skills and even improves their quality. Exercises for fine motor skills of the hands are carried out individually or in a group taking into account the characteristics of the patients. Molding and knitting, painting help people with trauma to be rehabilitated.
Exercises for speech development and memory restoration are held in groups, including with the participation of relatives. The patient is reminded of vital moments, in communication he learns to speak. The development of speech is facilitated by singing.
5 Additional useful information
Learning to walk alone is one of the most important tasks for a patient who has undergone a severe brain injury.
As well as children in the first years of life, the sick are taught to walk. First, with the help of special devices that do not allow the patient to lose balance and fall, and then holding under his arms. Gradually, the ability to independently move is restored, provided that the muscular tissues have not lost their functions.
Full nutrition means increased intake of protein-rich foods, aimed at restoring muscle tissue. After exiting the coma, significant weight loss and muscle atrophy are noted. Rehabilitation requires digestible proteins, as well as vitamins and trace elements.
The restoration of communication skills is easier and faster in the context of small groups of communication, which are organized during treatment in a sanatorium. After injury, patients are closed or hindered. Joint activities help to adapt to patients and quickly return to normal life. At home with patients who survived brain trauma, it is necessary to speak and show more love, so that they do not experience anxiety, feel the protection and support of close people.