Brain injury is extremely serious damage. This condition entails many dangerous health consequences. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the symptoms of this pathology - after any head injury, you should consult your doctor.
Case history and brain contusion clinic
This term is a trauma that causes damage to brain tissue. As a result of this process, necrosis of the nervous tissue can develop. Injury entails one-sided or two-sided damage.
Therefore, it is often necessary to perform computed tomography. Sometimes a lumbar puncture is shown - in the course of this study, a cerebrospinal fluid is taken for analysis, in which blood can be found when the brain is bruised.
Degrees of severity and types of brain contusions
Depending on the severity of the lesion, three degrees of contusion can be distinguished:
- An easy degree or 1 degree. In this state, a person often loses consciousness - this can last up to 10 minutes. A bruised brain is often accompanied by a hemorrhage or fracture of bones. Symptoms include nausea, headaches.
- Average degree or 2 degree. In this situation, a person can be unconscious for about 7 hours. There may be severe headaches, blurred vision, amnesia. Sometimes there is a violation of certain vital functions and the body temperature rises. There may be a fracture of the skull bones and a hemorrhage.
- Heavy or 3rd degree. For a long period of time a person can lie in a coma. This is due to the fact that individual brain functions are turned off. In addition, the body temperature, pressure, rhythm of breathing rises. Quite often there are pronounced neurological signs. Paralysis of the extremities may develop.
Depending on the location of the injury, the work of different sites may be disrupted:
- The trunk of the brain. The prognosis is often unfavorable, as functions important for life are violated.
- Soft tissue of the brain. Quite serious pathology, which can be accompanied by hemorrhage. Frontal lobe of the brain. Light damage can not cause significant deviations, whereas large lesions of the posterior parts of this lobe lead to dangerous consequences.
ICD-10 does not contain clear criteria for coding the diagnosis, but most often the brain contusion is coded under the code S 06.2 "Diffuse craniocerebral trauma."
In some cases, the shake encoding is used - 06/0.Sometimes the code S 06.7 "Diffuse trauma with a prolonged coma" can be used.
Brain injury can occur with closed or open traumatic brain injury. Sometimes there is a hemorrhagic bruise, in which there is a hemorrhage.
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All kinds of injuries can lead to a bruise.
Most often it is the result:
- damage in production;
- car accident;
- domestic or sports damage.
Often, people get damaged in a state of intoxication. One of the risk factors is also the presence of epilepsy - during an attack a person can fall and hit.
Symptoms and signs of
Symptoms of this pathology directly depend on the severity of the lesion.
The main features are:
- Constant headaches.
- Disorders or complete loss of consciousness.
- Nausea and vomiting that does not bring relief.
- Motion coordination disorders.
- Memory impairment, which manifests itself in the form of retrograde amnesia.
- Violations of speech, sight, hearing, loss of swallowing reflex.
- Increased blood pressure and decreased heart rate.
- Involuntary stool and urination.
- Weak breathing.
- Changing the size of the pupils. Divergent strabismus and nystagmus.
- Isolation of blood from the ears and nose.
To avoid negative health effects, it is necessary to immediately carry out a thorough examination and make a correct diagnosis.
Diagnostics includes such procedures:
- Evaluation of the state of the cardiovascular system.
- Determination of the state of the respiratory system
- Inspection of the body of the victim. With the help of this procedure it is possible to assess the general state of the organism.
- Neurological examination. In the course of the study, the reaction of the pupils of the patient to light stimuli is established, and the Glasgow coma is performed.
- Computed tomography. It allows to reveal fractures of the skull, to determine the presence of hemorrhages or hematomas in the brain.
- MRI( magnetic resonance imaging) Despite the effectiveness of this type of research, it is used very rarely, because in this case, a long preparation is required.
Before arrival of the doctor as first aid it is necessary to perform such measures:
- Apply cold to the place of damage. This will help reduce pain and remove swelling. For this purpose, a cold compress or ice wrapped in a bag is suitable.
- Lay the victim. Often bruises accompany dizziness, a sense of weakness. A person can lose consciousness, which will lead to new bruises or fractures.
- Do not give people food, drinks or medicine.
The tactics of treating a brain injury are based on the implementation of such activities:
- Strict adherence to bed rest. This will prevent additional damage to nerve tissue.
- Introduction of pain medication.
- Use of antihypoxic drugs.
- Introduction of drugs that slow down reactions in nervous tissues - thanks to this in a short time it is possible to restore the work of disturbed areas.
- Heart rate stabilization.
- Pressure normalization.
- Use of nootropic drugs.
- Prevention of infectious and inflammatory processes.
As a rule, the appointment of neuroprotectors - ceraxone, somazine - is mandatory. Of antioxidants, vitamin E, mexidol, solcoseryl are most often used.
As for veterinary drugs, L-lysine escinat and the means for improving circulation in the vessels - sermion, Cavinton, B vitamins can be used.
These include fragments of bones, hemorrhages, which can not be eliminated by medicines. For this purpose, bone-plastic trepanation is performed.
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Consequences and Forecast
The most adverse effects of a severe brain contusion are disorders that are circulatory in nature. Also bruises quite often cause subarachnoid hemorrhages.
There may be cerebral edema, an increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure. In such a situation, there is a threat that the products of blood decay will cause an inflammatory process in the brain.
More remote health effects directly depend on the severity of brain damage. The most unfavorable are the consequences of a severe injury. In this case, doctors estimate the mortality rate to be 30-50%.If a person survives, with a high degree of probability he faces disability.
Rehabilitation after a brain injury
Of course, rehabilitation measures largely depend on the severity of the injury.
However, there are many general recommendations for people who have suffered traumatic brain damage. Their observance will avoid the development of complications.
- Care and attention from relatives and friends.
- Elimination of toxic effects on the human body - this is provided by wet cleaning, the use of humidifiers and devices for air purification.
- Refusal of products that cause nervous system excitement - coffee, alcohol, strong tea.
- Full rest, exclusion of stressful situations. It is very important to minimize the impact of external stimuli, reduce the stay in front of the TV or computer.
In case of brain contusion, rather unfavorable complications can develop, up to a fatal outcome. Therefore, when getting injured, you should not neglect the reference to the doctor. Perhaps this will help save your life or prevent the development of dangerous consequences.