Gastroduodenitis - what is it? Symptoms, diet and treatment

Gastroduodenitis is a different intensity of inflammation of the gastric mucosa and duodenum. What is the difference between gastritis and gastroduodenitis? With gastritis only the gastric mucosa suffers, but with gastroduodenitis the pathological process has already stepped beyond its limits, and spread to the mucous layer of the duodenum.

Just so, for no apparent reason, gastroduodenitis does not develop, and its appearance, as a rule, is preceded by a confluence of several adverse factors. Typically, this disease affects people who have previously had to deal with various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, from banal dysbiosis to gastritis.

Nevertheless, the banal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum can easily be eliminated with the help of medications or folk remedies. But if it lasts for a long time and is aggravated by stress, nervous breakdown, depression or eating dry, then it can be confidently asserted that it is unlikely to avoid gastroduodenitis.

Reasons for

Why does gastroduodenitis occur, and what is it? The occurrence of gastroduodenitis is associated with irregular and irregular eating habits, harmful habits( all known smoking, drinking alcohol), stresses, taking certain groups of medicines, intestinal infections and a number of other factors.

In this case, there is an increase or, conversely, a decrease in the acidity of gastric juice, which affects the protective mucous layer, the speed and quality of digestion of food. The decrease in protective properties leads to the multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms( primarily Helicobacter pylori) and direct damage to the gastric mucosa. Inflammation develops, which gradually changes to the mucous membrane of the duodenum.

Inflammation of the duodenum can occur suddenly( acute gastroduodenitis), but most often the disease proceeds in a chronic form with clearly less severe symptoms. As a rule, exacerbation of chronic gastroduodenitis occurs in the spring and autumn, followed by a phase of remission. The degree of severity of the exacerbation period is determined by the strength of pain and duration, and by the general condition of the patient.

After 2 - 3 months, the inflammation passes to the incomplete stage( if endoscopy reveals signs of gastroduodenitis) or complete remission( if there are no clinical manifestations).

Symptoms of gastroduoden

Gastroduodenitis is characterized by the following symptoms: decreased appetite, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, belching sour, bitter or air, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, bloating. Another common sign of gastroduodenitis is pain in the epigastric or near-pustular region.

The intensity of pain depends on the nature of the disorder of the secretory and motor functions. If the secretory function is normal or elevated, then such gastroduodenitis is characterized by constant pain. Pain can also occur on an empty stomach, after a short period of time or 1-2 hours after a meal, rarely at night. Sometimes, instead of pain( the equivalent of pain), there may be a feeling of rapid satiety with food.

Symptoms of superficial gastroduodenitis are more smoothed. Its treatment is focused on eliminating irritants and normalizing digestive processes. In this case, the mucous membrane becomes inflamed only in the upper layers, the walls can thicken, but no atrophic processes are observed.

The most unpleasant and painful are the symptoms of erosive gastroduodenitis and treatment is therefore required immediately. The stomach and gut are covered with numerous inflammation foci with small ulcers - the so-called erosions. With nausea in the vomit, mucus particles and bloody impurities may be present.

Chronic gastroduodenitis

Out of exacerbations the symptoms of gastroduodenitis are expressed in:

  • sensation of heaviness and overcrowding in the epigastric region;
  • increased irritability, rapid fatigue, sleep disturbance, loss of body weight despite the presence of a saved or even increased appetite;
  • aching pain of a constant nature in the same area and / or heartburn before eating for 1.5 to 2 hours after eating, but again intensifying after 2 hours;
  • is characterized by pain arising after eating in 2 to 2.5 hours, accompanied by nausea and passing after induced vomiting;
  • of non-intense soreness when palpation( feeling) of the abdomen in the same departments;
  • of the lagging of the tongue with a white coating, a sensation of bitterness or a "metallic" taste in the mouth;
  • nocturnal aches and pains, also disappearing after eating;
  • constipation with increased acidity and constipation, sometimes followed by diarrhea with a decreased secretory function.

In contrast to the acute form, the chronic course of the disease has the character of cyclicity, and the severity of symptoms largely depends on the depth and area of ​​inflammation of the gastric mucosa and duodenal bulb, acidity and general body condition.

Treatment of gastroduodenitis in a chronic form, regardless of whether the patient's superficial gastroduodenitis, or mixed, or any other species, should be complex. In the period of calm, the patient must follow the diet of table number 5, observe diet and rest, very good results are provided by balneotherapy, a preventive course of spa treatment is recommended once a year.

Even in the event that complete remission is achieved, it is necessary to remember about its propensity to gastroduodenitis, and in the preventive purposes to observe the rules of healthy nutrition throughout life.

Diagnosis

Based on the symptoms of gastroduodenitis, an additional instrumental and laboratory examination is prescribed, which includes:

  1. Ultrasonic examination of the stomach - on a modern ultrasound device you can visualize the presence of ulcers, used to exclude peptic ulcer;
  2. Endoscopically, gastroduodenitis usually shows focal or diffuse hyperemia of the mucosa, edema, hypertrophy of the folds, etc. Sometimes the mucosa appears pale, thinned, with smoothed folds. This is typical of an atrophic process, but the presence or absence of atrophy and its degree can only be assessed histologically.
  3. X-ray of the stomach with barium is not a diagnostic method for CGD, but can be used to evaluate evacuation function in differential diagnosis with other diseases( congenital malformations, pyloric stenosis, tumors, chronic duodenal obstruction, etc.).

It is also necessary to conduct a study of gastric secretion - pH-metrics of the stomach and duodenum. By results of researches it is possible to define, what form has gastroduodenitis - with the raised or increased acidity, and, accordingly, to appoint or true treatment.

How to treat gastroduodenitis

When symptoms of gastroduodenitis appear, treatment in adults should be based on the principles of individual approach to each patient, that is, the choice of inpatient or outpatient treatment and regimen( bed, half-bed, ward).Important importance is given to proper dietary nutrition, adequate and justified prescription of medicines.

Principles of treatment of gastroduodenitis are identical to the treatment of chronic gastritis:

  • during an exacerbation, the patient is recommended 7-8-day stay in bed;
  • special attention is paid to diet: the first days of acute period - table number 1, later - table number 5, during remission - a balanced and complete diet;
  • three-component therapy, carried out for 7-10 days, helps to get rid of infectious bacteria( Helicobacter pylori);
  • to reduce acidity in the stomach, patients are prescribed the reception of H2-blockers of histamine receptors;
  • if there is such a need, treatment of gastroduodenitis includes drugs that regulate the motor function of organs;
  • rehabilitation after the crisis includes physiotherapy, physical therapy, as well as stay in the profile sanatoria and health resorts.

Patients with severe pain syndrome, or if there are symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding with erosive gastroduodenitis, are usually hospitalized. For children, an unfavorable situation in the home, various psychotraumatic situations, is an important reason for hospitalization.

Drugs for the treatment of gastroduodenitis

The choice of medicines depends on the type and causes of gastroduodenitis. If a Helicobacter pylori infection is detected during the examination, then antibacterial therapy is performed. Usually a combination of 2-3 antibiotics is used. In chronic gastroduodenitis with high acidity, proton pump inhibitors, antacids and antihistamines are used.

If mucosal atrophy is detected, bismuth preparations are prescribed. It is possible to use antispasmodics and drugs that improve the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. To normalize the activity of the nervous system use various sedatives, phytopreparations.

Diet

Observance of certain dietary rules is one of the main principles of treatment of gastroduodenitis at home. The main purpose of the diet will be to restore the disturbed function of the stomach( both motor and secretory), and also positively affect the structure of the mucous membrane.

The basis of gastroduodenitis treatment is diet number 1, which is eventually replaced by diet number 5.In this diet should prevail soups on meat, mushroom or fish broth, boiled chicken, dairy products, cereals, eggs, fruits and vegetables, lean meat. Following the principles of fractional nutrition, the number of meals increases to 5-6, but the size of portions is reduced.

Folk remedies

When treating gastroduodenitis with folk remedies, an integrated approach should be applied. Medicinal herbs perfectly cope with the chronic type of disease and are well combined with diet.

For decontamination of the disease, decoctions are successfully used:

  • yarrow,
  • chamomile,
  • St. John's wort,
  • fennel seeds,
  • valerian root,
  • hops, etc.

Removing pathology by themselves can only be in case of superficial inflammation and if the ailment develops withoutcomplications. Doctors do not give a direct answer to whether gastroduodenitis can be cured. Complex forms of the disease can not be easily overcome. Nevertheless, a strict diet, regular intake of medicines prescribed by a doctor and physiotherapy can prevent possible complications, making life more pleasant.

Forecast

For gastroduodenitis, the prognosis is favorable only if the gastroenterologist is examined regularly and that his recommendations regarding proper nutrition and lifestyle are followed.

In patients who do not adhere to a diet, do not undergo a full course of treatment with exacerbations, chronic gastroduodenitis passes into peptic ulcer of the stomach, which threatens a significant deterioration and serious complications.

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