Cochlear neuritis is an inflammation of the nerve located in the inner ear. The disease leads to deafness or to a sense of constant noise in the ear. Often the disease is designated as sensorineural hearing loss, but these two ailments are different. Neuritis is one of the causes that leads to a decrease in the auditory function.
Cochlear neuritis according to ICD-10
According to ICD-10, the disease belongs to class 8 "Diseases of the ear and mastoid process", section "other diseases".The disease code is H 94.0.According to statistics, hearing impairment is a problem of 6-8% of the population. In most cases, it is cochlear neuritis that leads to a disruption in the performance of the auditory analyzer.
The disease can affect only one side or manifest on both. Depending on this, the cochlear neuritis is divided into one-sided and two-sided. The latter is less common than the development of the disease on the one hand. In this case, often leads to the isolation of the patient, a decrease in the level of emotionality and social activity.
According to another classification, the disease depends on the prescription of the disease and how much the nerve is affected. On this basis are allocated:
- Acute neuritis. Can develop within 2-3 days. The very same disease lasts for up to a month. If during this period to consult a doctor, then the probability of complete recovery of hearing is 70-90%.
- Subacute neuritis. It is discussed if the lesion lasts from 1 to 3 months. The chance of recovery is in 30-70% of patients.
- Chronic defeat. It lasts more than three months and is very difficult to treat.
Cochlear neuritis differs and lesion level:
- Peripheral. Disturbances occur in the inner ear.
- Central. Dysfunction is observed in the structures of the brain.
Localization of cochlear neuritis
Causes of the disease
The disease can be congenital or acquired. In the first case, it is a pathology at the genetic level. Sometimes violations occur during childbirth.
Hereditary form is more often observed in combination with other genetic disorders. Sometimes the problem is related to the X chromosome. Then cochlear neuritis is part of the Alport syndrome. Simultaneously with the illness of the ears, glomerulonephritis, impaired vision, is manifested. In childbirth, the development of the disease is associated with birth trauma or fetal hypoxia( posttraumatic neuritis).
Acquired disease in 30% is associated with the development of various infectious diseases :
- hermetic infection,
- scarlet fever,
- typhoid fever.
In 10-15% of cases, the development of the disease manifests itself when taking medications that have ototoxic properties. These include drugs, where the active substance are neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, as well as various cytotoxic drugs, diuretics and drugs for the treatment of arrhythmia.
Causes of development of professional cochlear neuritis
Symptoms and signs
Symptoms depend on the stage of cochlear neuritis and the presence of concomitant pathology. Usually, the following signs appear in the disease:
- Impairment of hearing. At the initial stages there is an easy hearing loss. It intensively increases, can lead to a complete hearing loss. Sometimes complete deafness develops in a few hours.
- Noises ringing in the ears. With the disease, this symptom is permanent. The intensity of manifestation can be different. When the hearing completely disappears, the noise also disappears.
- Signs of intoxication. The symptom appears in the event that the precondition for the development of the disease is the effect of toxic substances. In this case, the patient feels malaise, weakness, dizziness. There is a pallor of the skin.
In infectious nature, symptoms are combined with symptoms such as fever, runny nose, lethargy, malaise.
Because neuritis affects not only the organ of hearing, but also the work of the brain, there are also changes in human behavior. It becomes very difficult for him to express his thoughts.
The degree of nerve damage is determined by audiometry. The method makes it possible to measure and analyze at once several features of a person's hearing. The degree of deafness is revealed using tonal threshold audiometry. If there is a need to exclude an abnormal violation, then acoustic impedance measurement is used. A check is necessary to determine the violation in the tympanic membrane.
In addition to establishing an accurate diagnosis, consultations of other doctors are appointed. Research is being conducted:
- radiograph of the skull,
- X-ray of the cervical spine,
- biochemical blood and urine tests,
- study of hormones.
Diagnosis of cochlear neuritis:
The goal of all measures is to completely or partially restore the auditory function. If the disease is chronic, then all measures are aimed at stabilizing the existing condition.
Vasodilator drugs, various venotonics, neuroprotectors, solutions that allow detoxification are used. Combination therapy begins with intravenous administration of vinpocitin, piracetam, actovegin and some other substances.
After two weeks, the transition to intramuscular injection. Additionally, glucocortisoids are prescribed. If there is dizziness, then prescribed histamine-like drugs.
If the disease is associated with an infectious disease, then use antiviral drugs or antibiotics. That medicines to a lesser extent affect human auditory function, vitamins, drinking in sufficient quantity, full rest are prescribed.
They almost always accompany the medication. Successfully used:
These activities are carried out in all types of illness, when there is at least a small chance to restore hearing.
If the doctor's goal is to preserve the already existing state of health, prosthetics can be prescribed. Various devices are used, which allow not only to restore the perception of sounds, but also speech activity.
The operation is prescribed if cochlear, stem implantation is required. Also, this treatment is topical if the disorders are associated with trauma, a tumor or various neoplasms that need to be removed. The operation is carried out in situations where constant dizziness and noise effects do not allow for a normal life.
Reviews about the treatment of cochlear neuritis with the help of implantation:
Specialists do not recommend going to folk methods of treatment until the time of the research. All funds are applied only after consultation in conjunction with prescribed medications.
One of the popular is the golden mustache. A decoction is made from the leaves. It is best to let it brew in the thermos for 12 hours. It is applied three times a day.
Neuritis is treated with garlic. To do this, the denticle is rubbed on a shallow grater until the gruel is formed. Camphor oil is added to the formulation. Then the composition is put on gauze and placed in the ear until the burning occurs.
Complications and consequences
With early diagnosis of the disease, hearing loss occurs in a large number of people. One-third is improving. The main complication is complete hearing loss.
In elderly people using various techniques to slow down the development of the disease is possible, but complete healing is observed in extremely rare cases.
It is necessary to prevent head and neck injuries, as well as not to be in contact with various toxins.
If you began to note the loss of hearing, then try to visit an otolaryngologist. In addition, the consultation of a cardiologist, neurologist and endocrinologist will be helpful.